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Frequently Asked Questions for the Library of Economics and Liberty
The Library of Economics and Liberty (Econlib) offers several FAQs:
Econlib FAQ -- General
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The Quote of the Day now also includes Birthday announcements on the birthdates of over 100 renowned economists plus a few other famous scientists, thinkers, and authors. Want to know if today is the anniversary of Bastiat's birth? Want to find out who was born on your own birthday? Check out the Quote of the Day regularly. See also Birthdays and Commemorations for upcoming birthdays of famous economists.
The citation/reference style will pop up in a new window. Just copy and paste the appropriate style to your own word processor. For most modern hardware and software, even formatting details will copy and paste intact. Depending on your browser, word processor, and platform (IBM or MacIntosh, etc.), you may have to reformat the material slightly. (For example, sometimes underlining or indentation do not transfer between the browser and word processor.) Instructions, alerts, and suggestions appear on the pop-up page. Please consult your publisher or teacher for required details about order, punctuation, indention, etc.
The pop-up page also gives links to the official MLA and APA websites, and several links for Turabian style examples, plus links to other fine sources for citing web pages.
Toward the bottom of the pop-up page you will also find the exact html code necessary to link to that page or the book's main page. If you are creating a link to the page, you can copy that material into your html code to link to the book page in question.
Footnote pages have a Citation Generator link at the bottom of the page.
Some are and some are not. The Library of Economics and Liberty has negotiated the electronic rights to all works that are not in the public domain. Electronic rights allow you to read and use the work according to Fair Use laws, but do not permit you to redistribute the work without getting permission from the copyright holder.
If the work is not in the public domain, the Copyright Information at the top of each page gives specific copyright details for each aspect of the work. If the work is public domain, the Liberty Fund copyright at the page bottom covers the additional research, design, and art scans involved in producing this work on line. Feel free to contact us for more information on any specific work.
More questions:Can I print the books?
By using the Print Page button located at the top of any book page, you will get a page specially formatted for printing. The page also features
Occasionally, Greek or other special characters may not print the same way you see them online. Printers differ, and some printers may be unable to render certain fonts. Econlib has worked hard to use common fonts and small graphics, so this problem should be rare; but if you know you are printing an item with special characters, it's worth taking a moment to check your printed copy.
Some Econlib books contain charts or other graphic elements. These elements may print in a smaller-than-desired size. To print a larger copy, return to the online version of the book and click the chart. This action brings it up in a new window, which can then be printed directly.
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Your printer and browser may allow you to decrease or increase the font size, which may decrease or increase the number of pages that print. Your printer may also allow you to automatically number the printed pages. You can make these changes using the Print Preview and Print Setup features of your printer and browser.
Printing one copy for personal use is always permitted. Unless otherwise stated at the bottom of the page, mass reprinting, redistribution, or repackaging may violate the website copyright. Please contact the email@example.com for more information.
The Concise Encyclopedia of Economics (CEE) contains short expository articles by 141 top economists on popular economics topics. The articles are addressed to college-level readers, with additional materials for more advanced readers. Eighty biographies of famous economists are also included. A thorough Index, the Book Search tool and one-click formatted citation information for every page make the CEE fast and easy to use.
Check out the Citation Generator, a free citation tool available for every book page that saves students and researchers time by providing one-click, pre-formatted, cut-and-paste citation information for all our book pages. And: take a look at the Book Search tool, which goes a step beyond displaying just links to pages, and displays the complete paragraphs for all keywords, speeding the time it takes to locate material. Finally, don't miss our Links page, where we maintain a list of the most reliable, best-documented other sources for online economics books and essays.
To link to any of the passages quoted on the Best-Known Quotations page, just click the desired link and copy the code in full from your browser's location window.
Many items are small enough to be downloaded simply by opening the file in your browser and saving it by selecting File/Save As. (Wait a moment till the file is finished loading into your browser first.) Pick a folder name, and save each file into that folder. Don't forget the Table of Contents and the Footnotes file(s). The book and all its links will then work fine in your browser when you are offline! (You may be missing a few pictures at the tops of the files, depending on your browser, but you will have all the content for the book.) This process can be tedious for a few books that have many files, but it is not much more costly than simply loading the page into your browser: as soon as it's loaded, it can be saved at high speed, and you can read it later.
If you can think of some keywords describing what you are looking for, the two search tools on the website can find you immediately either the complete quotations or the individual page you want, without having to download an entire book. Both search tools are both extremely fast, efficient, and helpful. The Book Search tool, which displays complete paragraphs for you, can save a lot of download time because you don't have to click the links to every individual page to see the context for your keyword. If you don't have a particular book in mind, you can select All Books to see all the relevant paragraphs far more quickly than it takes to open each individual page. If you want to check this powerful feature out, try this: Type the two words "invisible hand" (with or without the quotation marks) into the Book Search terms area, and select "All Smith". Notice that you get not just a list of the links, but the full paragraphs, all in a matter of seconds. The context lets you pick efficiently which longer page links you might want to follow up on.
In a few cases, we have decided to publish two separate editions of a work. This might be because of alternate translations, or because the author's changes fundamentally changed the book from one edition to the next.
Why do strange characters show up in my browser window? Also, many Econlib books use occasional math characters in the text, often Greek characters like phi, mu, Sigma (summation signs), etc. How can I set my browser to display them?
The characters your browser displays differ by browser (IE? Netscape?), browser version (4.0+? 6.0+? 7.0+?), which hardware/operating system you are using (Mac? PC/Windows?), and which specialty fonts you may have personally downloaded or activated to augment the defaults supplied with your machine.
Econlib tries to use only the most universal options possible. We use a combination of UTF-8 and ISO-8859-1 and the long-established Symbol font, accessible on almost every machine, Mac or PC.
b. For the newest PC systems, if you use IE 6.0+, you probably have to do nothing.
c. If you are having trouble with characters on a page, try selecting Western (ISO-8859-1) or Unicode (UTF-8) in your browser settings. In Netscape, you can reach these options under View/CharacterCoding; turn AutoDetect to Off and then select one of those options while viewing the page.
d. If Greek characters still do not display: If you use Netscape 7.0+, select View/Character Coding/Customize. The resulting screen lets you add some fonts to your displayed fonts any time they are detected by your browser. Scroll down the supplied potential list on the left and select Greek(MacGreek). (Do not worry if you are not using a Mac! The font is titled MacGreek, but it long pre-dates Macs. It used to be called Symbol font, and it contains hundreds of standardized Greek and other characters used for math.) Click Add. The item will show up in the right-hand column. Close the window. You should now be able to see the standard math/Greek characters used by Econlib and by hundreds of other websites.
e. If you still cannot see basic Greek symbols in math, please email us.
Graphs and figures within books are produced by scans in either .gif or .jpg format. If they are reduced for display within a paragraph, they can be enlarged in a separate browser window by clicking on them.
For foreign languages and mathematics, we integrate the best technologies available on a case-by-case basis. Whenever possible, mathematical equations or unusual variables or characters are handled by using available ASCII characters in the existing character sets recognized by most browsers. This choice enables maximum display and searchability of documents. In cases where those characters are unavailable or a poor choice, such as entire Greek words or some in-text equations, we use small graphic files that read just like the surrounding text for most users.
For difficult displayed equations, we use Donald Knuth's incomparable math typesetting software TeX to generate the correct underlying equation, and then cut a small graphic of the displayed .dvi file. In a few extreme cases in which displayed equations permeate an entire chapter or essay, the entire chapter is produced in TeX and used to generate a .pdf file. (To read .pdf files, you need a common free browser plug-in, Adobe's Acrobat Reader. For an example of such a file on this website, see Marshall, Principles of Economics, Mathematical Appendix.) TeX is ASCII-based and the TeX files are searched when using a Site Search, even if the final .pdf file is not searched.
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