ASCII and HTML Codes Conversion Table

Common ASCII/html codes within the books on the Econlib Website:

These characters are most likely to be found by searching for the ASCII/ISO Latin-1 or html Entities. Just copy and paste the code in the columns below directly into the Search Form. For example, to search for an m-dash, paste the code — (including the semi-colon but with no spaces around it) directly into the Search Form.

It may be productive to search for each of the possible variations: the character itself, the ASCII/ISO Latin-1, and the html Entity, separately.

In a few cases, notably fractions, additional matches might be found by searching for ordinary text variations. E.g., both non-case and case fractions (e.g., 1/2 or 1#2 instead of ½) occur in the text of some books, in addition to ½.

Note that the character # is technically a wildcard on the Econlib Search Form, but it can be used effectively within an ASCII/ISO Latin-1 Character Code while searching because of the unique ordering of an ampersand, followed by the #-sign, followed by digits, followed by a semi-colon.

Character ASCII/ISO Latin-1
Character Code
¼ ¼ ¼ case fraction: 1/4
½ ½ ½ case fraction: 1/2
¾ ¾ ¾ case fraction: 3/4
— m-dash, used without surrounding spaces.
© © © copyright sign
× × × multiply sign
÷ ÷ ÷ divide sign
      non-breaking space

Common Special Characters, Ligatures, and Accented Characters:

These characters are most likely to be found by searching for the character itself. However, there could be occasional occurrences of the ASCII/ISO Latin-1 or html Entities. Please let us know if you find them!

Character ASCII/ISO Latin-1
Character Code
¢ ¢ ¢ cent sign
£ £ £ pound sterling sign
¥ ¥ ¥ yen sign
§ § § section sign
&   & ampersand sign
"   " double quotation mark
Æ Æ Æ capital AE ligature
æ æ æ small ae ligature
ΠΠcapital OE ligature, codes rare
œ œ small oe ligature, codes rare
Ç Ç Ç capital C, cedilla
ç ç ç small c, cedilla
À À À capital A, grave accent
à à à small a, grave accent
Á Á Á capital A, acute accent
á á á small a, acute accent
È È È capital E, grave accent
è è è small e, grave accent
É É É capital E, acute accent
é é é small e, acute accent
Ì Ì Ì capital I, grave accent
ì ì ì small i, grave accent
Í Í Í capital I, acute accent
í í í small i, acute accent
Ò Ò Ò capital O, grave accent
ò ò ò small o, grave accent
Ó Ó Ó capital O, acute accent
ó ó ó small o, acute accent
Ù Ù Ù capital U, grave accent
ù ù ù small u, grave accent
Ú Ú Ú capital U, acute accent
ú ú ú small u, acute accent
Ý Ý Ý capital Y, acute accent
ý ý ý small y, acute accent
   capital A, circumflex accent
â â â small a, circumflex accent
à à à capital A, tilde
ã ã ã small a, tilde
Ä Ä Ä capital A, dieresis or umlaut mark
ä ä ä small a, dieresis or umlaut mark
Å Å Å capital A, ring
å å å small a, ring
Ê Ê Ê capital E, circumflex accent
ê ê ê small e, circumflex accent
Ë Ë Ë capital E, dieresis or umlaut mark
ë ë ë small e, dieresis or umlaut mark
Î Î Î capital I, circumflex accent
î î î small i, circumflex accent
Ï Ï Ï capital I, dieresis or umlaut mark
ï ï ï small i, dieresis or umlaut mark
Ô Ô Ô capital O, circumflex accent
ô ô ô small o, circumflex accent
Õ Õ Õ capital O, tilde
õ õ õ small o, tilde
Ö Ö Ö capital O, dieresis or umlaut mark
ö ö ö small o, dieresis or umlaut mark
Û Û Û capital U, circumflex accent
û û û small u, circumflex accent
Ü Ü Ü capital U, dieresis or umlaut mark
ü ü ü small u, dieresis or umlaut mark
ÿ ÿ ÿ small y, dieresis or umlaut mark

Rare characters:

These characters are included for completeness and do not to our knowledge occur yet in the books on the Econlib website. Please let us know if you find them!

Character ASCII/ISO Latin-1
Character Code
® ® ® registered sign
¶ ¶ paragraph sign
± ± ± plus-or-minus sign
· · · middle dot
<   &lt; less-than sign
>   &gt; greater-than sign
¬ &#172; &not; not sign
¤ &#164; &curren; general currency sign
¦ &#166; &brvbar; broken (vertical) bar
° &#176; &deg; degree sign
´ &#180; &acute; acute accent
¨ &#168; &uml; umlaut (dieresis)
¯ &#175; &macr; macron
¸ &#184; &cedil; cedilla
« &#171; &laquo; angle quotation mark, left
» &#187; &raquo; angle quotation mark, right
¹ &#185; &sup1; superscript one
² &#178; &sup2; superscript two
³ &#179; &sup3; superscript three
ª &#170; &ordf; ordinal indicator, feminine
º &#186; &ordm; ordinal indicator, masculine
¡ &#161; &iexcl; inverted exclamation mark
¿ &#191; &iquest; inverted question mark
µ &#181; &micro; micro sign, Greek mu
­ &#173; &shy; soft hyphen (not implemented in a useful way html)
Ð &#208; &ETH; capital Eth, Icelandic
ð &#240; &eth; small eth, Icelandic
Ñ &#209; &Ntilde; capital N, tilde
ñ &#241; &ntilde; small n, tilde
Ø &#216; &Oslash; capital O, slash
ø &#248; &oslash; small o, slash
ß &#223; &szlig; small sharp s, German (sz ligature)
Þ &#222; &THORN; capital THORN, Icelandic
þ &#254; &thorn; small thorn, Icelandic