Cyclopædia of Political Science, Political Economy, and the Political History of the United States

Edited by: Lalor, John J.
(?-1899)
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First Pub. Date
1881
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New York: Maynard, Merrill, and Co.
Pub. Date
1899
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Includes articles by Frédéric Bastiat, Gustave de Molinari, Henry George, J. B. Say, Francis A. Walker, and more.
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ADMINISTRATIONS

I.20.1

ADMINISTRATIONS (IN U. S. HISTORY.) Under the confederation, the only substitute for an executive power was a series of boards of war, treasury, etc., working under the supervision of committees of congress. Under the constitution these were succeeded by a system of executive departments, organized by acts of congress but filled by appointment of the president. The principal officers of these departments form a body of advisers to the president, for which the name cabinet has been borrowed from English political language; but the word has no original significance in this country, and the president is not even required by the constitution, but merely permitted, to demand the written opinions of heads of departments.

I.20.2

—The present departments were organized by acts of the following dates: War, (then including the Navy), Aug. 7, 1789; Treasury, Sept. 2, 1789; State, (originally Foreign Affairs), Sept. 15, 1789; Justice, (as a part of the Judiciary), Sept. 24, 1789; Postoffice, (temporary) Sept. 22, 1789, (permanent) May 8, 1794; Navy, April 30, 1798; Interior, March 3, 1849. The postmaster general was not considered a cabinet officer until invited by Jackson to cabinet meetings in 1829. Until that time this officer was considered a subordinate of the treasury department. A list of postmasters general, 1789-1829, is given at the end of this article.

I.20.3

—1ST ADMINISTRATION. George Washington, Va., pres., John Adams, Mass., vice pres. State, Thomas Jefferson, Va., Sept. 26, 1789; Treas., Alex. Hamilton, N. Y., Sept. 11, 1789; War, Henry Knox, Mass.; Sept. 12, 1789; Atty. Genl., Edmund Randolph, Va., Sept. 26, 1789.

I.20.4

—2ND ADMINISTRATION. George Washington, Va., pres., John Adams, Mass., vice pres. State, Thomas Jefferson, Va., March 4, 1793, Edmund Randolph, Va., Jan. 2. 1794, Timothy Pickering, Mass., Dec. 10, 1795; Treas., Alex. Hamilton, N. Y., March 4, 1793, Oliver Wolcott, Conn., Feb. 2, 1795; War, Henry Knox, Mass., March 4, 1793, Timothy Pickering, Mass., Jan. 2, 1795, James McHenry, Md., Jan. 27, 1796; Atty. Genl., Edmund Randolph, Va., March 4, 1793, Wm. Bradford, Pa., Jan. 27, 1794, Charles Lee, Va., Dec. 10, 1795.

I.20.5

—3RD ADMINISTRATION. John Adams, Mass., pres., Thomas Jefferson, Va., vice-pres. State, Timothy Pickering, Mass., March 4, 1797, John Marshall, Va., May 13, 1800; Treas., Oliver Wolcott, Mass., March 4, 1797, Samuel Dexter, Mass., Jan. 1, 1801; War, James McHenry, Md., March 4, 1797, Samuel Dexter, Mass., May 13, 1800, Roger Griswold, Conn., Feb. 3, 1801; Navy, George Cabot, Mass., May 3, 1798, Benj. Stoddert, Md., March 21, 1798; Atty. Genl., Charles Lee, Va., March 4, 1797, Theo. Parsons, Mass., Feb. 20, 1801.

I.20.6

—4TH ADMINISTRATION. Thomas Jefferson, Va., pres., Aaron Burr, N. Y, vice-pres. State, James Madison, Va., March 5, 1801; Treas., Albert Gallatin, Pa., May 14, 1801; War, Henry Dearborn, Mass., March 5, 1801; Navy, Robert Smith, Md., July 15, 1801; Atty. Genl., Levi Lincoln, Mass., March 5, 1801.

I.20.7

—5TH ADMINISTRATION. Thomas Jefferson, Va., pres., Geo. Clinton, N. Y., vice-pres. State, James Madison, Va., March 4, 1805; Treas., Albert Gallatin, Pa., March 4, 1805; War, Henry Dearborn, Mass., March 4, 1805; Navy, Jacob Crowninshield, Mass., March 3, 1805; Atty. Genl., Robert Smith, Md., March 3, 1805, John Breckinridge, Ky., Aug. 7, 1805, Cæsar A. Rodney, Pa., Jan. 20, 1807.

I.20.8

—6TH ADMINISTRATION. James Madison, Va., pres., George Clinton, N. Y., vice-pres. State, Robert Smith, Md., March 6, 1809, James Monroe, Va., April 2, 1811; Treas., Albert Gallatin, Pa., March 4, 1809; War, William Eustis, Mass., March 7, 1809, John Armstrong, N. Y., Jan. 13, 1813; Navy, Paul Hamilton, S. C., March 7, 1809, William Jones, Pa., Jan. 12, 1813; Atty. Genl., Cæsar A. Rodney, Pa., March 4, 1809, William Pinkney, Md., Dec. 11, 1811.

I.20.9

—7TH ADMINISTRATION. James Madison, Va., pres., Elbridge Gerry, Mass., vice-pres. State, James Monroe, Va., March 4, 1813; Treas., Albert Gallatin, Pa., March 4, 1813, Geo. W. Campbell, Tenn., Feb. 9, 1814, Alex. James Dallas, Pa., Oct. 6, 1814, Wm. H. Crawford, Ga., Oct. 22, 1816; War, James Monroe, Sept. 27, 1814, Wm. H. Crawford, Ga., Aug. 1, 1815; Navy, William Jones, Pa., March 4, 1813, B. W. Crowninshield, Mass., Dec. 19, 1814; Atty. Genl., William Pinkney, Md., March 4, 1813, Richard Rush, Pa., Feb. 10, 1814.

I.20.10

—8TH ADMINISTRATION. James Monroe, Va., pres., Daniel D. Tompkins, N. Y., vice-pres. State, John Quincy Adams, Mass., March 5, 1817; Treas., Wm. H. Crawford, Ga., March 5, 1817; War, Isaac Shelby, Ky., March 5, 1817, George Graham, Va., April 7, 1817, John C. Calhoun, S. C., Oct. 8, 1817; Navy, B. W. Crowninshield, Mass., March 5, 1817, Smith Thompson, N. Y., Nov. 9, 1818; Atty. Genl., Richard Rush, Pa., March 5, 1817, Wm. Wirt, Va., Nov. 13, 1817.

I.20.11

—9TH ADMINISTRATION. James Monroe, Va., pres., Daniel D. Tompkins, N. Y., vice-pres. State, John Quincy Adams, Mass., March 5, 1821; Treas., Wm. H Crawford, Ga., March 5, 1821; War, John C. Calhoun, S. C., March 5, 1821; Navy, Smith Thompson, N. Y., March 5, 1821, Samuel L. Southard, N. J., Sept. 16, 1823; Atty. Genl., Wm. Wirt, Va., March 5, 1821.

I.20.12

—10TH ADMINISTRATION. John Quincy Adams, Mass., pres., John C. Calhoun, S. C., vice-pres. State, Henry Clay, Ky., March 7, 1825; Treas., Richard Rush, Pa., March 7, 1825; War, James Barbour, Va., March 7, 1825, Peter B. Porter, N. Y., May 26, 1828; Navy, Samuel L. Southard, N. J., March 4, 1825; Atty. Genl., Wm. Wirt, Va., March 4, 1825.

I.20.13

—11TH ADMINISTRATION. Andrew Jackson, Tenn., pres, John C. Calhoun, S. C., vice-pres. State, Martin Van Buren, N. Y., March 6, 1829, Edward Livingston, La., May 24, 1831; Treas., Samuel D. Ingham, Pa, March 6, 1829, Louis McLane, Del., Aug. 8, 1831; War, John H. Eaton, Tenn., March 9, 1829, Lewis Cass, O., Aug. 1, 1831; Navy, John Branch, N. C., March 9, 1829, Levi Woodbury, N. H., May 23, 1831; Postmaster Genl., William T. Barry, Ky., March 9, 1829; Atty. Genl., John M. Berrien, Ga., March 9, 1829, Roger B. Taney, Md, July 20, 1831.

I.20.14

—12TH ADMINISTRATION. Andrew Jackson, Tenn., pres., Martin Van Buren, N. Y., vice-pres. State, Louis McLane, Del., May 29, 1833, John Forsyth, Ga., June 27, 1834; Treas., Wm. J. Duane, Pa., May 29, 1833, Roger B. Taney, Md, Sept. 23, 1833, Levi Woodbury, N. H., June 27, 1834; War, Lewis Cass, O, March 4, 1833; Navy, Levi Woodbury, N. H., March 4, 1833, Mahlon Dickerson, N. J., June 30, 1834; Postmaster Genl., Wm. T. Barry, Ky., March 4, 1833, Amos Kendall, Ky., May 1, 1835; Atty. Genl., Roger B. Taney, Md., March 4, 1833, Benj. F. Butler, N. Y., Nov. 15, 1833.

I.20.15

—13TH ADMINISTRATION. Martin Van Buren, N. Y., pres., Richard M. Johnson, Ky., vice-pres. State, John Forsyth, Ga., March 4, 1837; Treas., Levi Woodbury, March 4, 1837; War, Benj. F. Butler, N. Y., March 3, 1837, Joel R. Poinsett, S. C., March 7, 1837; Navy, Mahlon Dickerson, N. J., March 4, 1837, James K. Paulding, N. Y., June 25, 1838; Postmaster Genl., Amos Kendall, Ky., March 4, 1837, John M. Niles, Conn., May 19, 1840; Atty. Genl., Benj F. Butler, N. Y., March 4, 1837, Felix Grundy, Tenn., July 5, 1838, Henry D. Gilpin, Pa., Jan. 11, 1840.

I.20.16

—14TH ADMINISTRATION. Wm. Henry Harrison, O., pres., John Tyler, Va., vice-pres. State, Daniel Webster, Mass., March 5, and April 6, 1841, Hugh S. Legaré, S. C., May 9, 1843, Abel P. Upshur, Va., July 24, 1843, John C. Calhoun, S. C., March 6, 1844; Treas., Thomas Ewing, O., March 5, and April 6, 1841, Walter Forward, Pa., Sept. 13, 1841, John C. Spencer, N. Y., March 3, 1843, George M Bibb. Ky., June 15, 1844; War, John Bell, Tenn., March 5, and April 6, 1841, John McLean, O., Sept. 13, 1841, John C. Spencer, N. Y., Oct. 12 1841, James M. Porter, Pa., March 8, 1843, William Wilkins, Pa., Feb. 15, 1844; Navy, George E. Badger, N. C., March 5, and April 6, 1841, Abel P. Upshur, Va., Sept. 13, 1841. David Henshaw, Mass., July 24, 1843, Thos. W. Gilmer, Va., Feb. 15, 1844, John Y. Mason, Va., March 14, 1844; Postmaster Genl., Francis Granger, N. Y., March 6, and April 6, 1841. Chas A. Wickliffe, Ky., Sept. 13, 1841; Atty. Genl., John J. Crittenden, Ky., March 5, and April 6, 1841, Hugh S. Legaré, S. C., Sept. 13, 1841, John Nelson, Md., July 1, 1843.

I.20.17

—15TH ADMINISTRATION. James K. Polk, Tenn., pres., George M. Dallas, Pa., vice-pres. State. James Buchanan, Pa., March 6 1845; Treas., Robt. J. Walker, Miss., March 6, 1845; War, Wm. L. Marcy, N. Y., March 6, 1845; Navy, Geo. Bancroft, Mass., March 10, 1845, John Y. Mason, Va., Sept. 9, 1846; Postmaster Genl., Cave Johnson, Tenn., March 6, 1845; Atty. Genl., John Y. Mason, Va., March 6 1845, Nathan Clifford, Me, Oct. 17, 1846, Isaac Toucey, Conn., June 21, 1848.

I.20.18

—16TH ADMINISTRATION. Zachary Taylor, La., pres., Millard Fillmore, N. Y., vice-pres. State, John M. Clayton, Del., March 7, 1849, Daniel Webster, Mass., July 22, 1850, Edward Everett, Mass., Dec. 6, 1852; Treas., Wm. M. Meredith, Pa., March 8, 1849, Thomas Corwin, O., July 23, 1850; War, Geo. W. Crawford, Ga, March 8, 1849, Edward Bates, Mo., July 20, 1850, Winfield Scott, ad interim, July 23, 1850, Charles M. Conrad, La., Aug. 15, 1850; Navy, Wm. B. Preston, Va., March 8, 1849, Wm. A. Graham, N. C., July 22, 1850, John P. Kennedy, Md., July 22, 1852; Interior, Thomas Ewing, O., March 8, 1849, James A. Pearce, Md., July 20, 1850, Thos. M. T. McKennan, Pa., Aug. 15, 1850, Alex. H. H. Stuart, Va., Sept. 12, 1850; Postmaster Genl., Jacob Collamer, Vt., March 8, 1849, Nathan K. Hall, N. Y., July 23, 1850, Samuel D. Hubbard, Conn., Aug. 31, 1852; Atty. Genl., Reverdy Johnson, Md., March 8, 1849, John J. Crittenden, Ky., July 22, 1850.

I.20.19

—17TH ADMINISTRATION. Franklin Pierce, N. H., pres., Wm. R. King, Ala., vice-pres. State, Wm. L. Marcy, N. Y., March 7, 1853; Treas., James Guthrie, Ky., March 7, 1853; War, Jefferson Davis, Miss., March 7, 1853; Navy, James C. Dobbin, N. C., March 7, 1853; Interior, Robert McClelland, Mich., March 7, 1853; Postmaster Genl., James Campbell, Pa., March 7, 1853; Atty. Genl., Caleb Cushing, Mass., March 7, 1853.

I.20.20

—18TH ADMINISTRATION. James Buchanan, Pa., pres., John C. Breckinridge, Ky., vice-pres. State, Lewis Cass, Mich., March 6, 1857, Jeremiah S. Black, Pa., Dec. 17, 1860; Treas., Howell Cobb, Ga., March 6, 1857, Philip F. Thomas, Md., Dec. 12, 1860, John A. Dix, N. Y., Jan. 11, 1861; War, John B. Floyd, Va., March 6, 1857, Joseph Holt, Ky., Jan. 18, 1861; Navy, Isaac Toucey, Conn., March 6, 1857; Interior, Jacob Thompson, Miss., March 6, 1857; Postmaster Genl., Aaron V. Brown, Tenn., March 6, 1857, Joseph Holt, Ky., March 14, 1859, Horatio King, Me., Feb. 12, 1861; Atty. Genl., Jeremiah S. Black, Pa., March 6, 1857, Edwin M. Stanton, Pa., Dec. 20, 1860.

I.20.21

—19TH ADMINISTRATION. Abraham Lincoln, Ill., pres., Hannibal Hamlin, Me., vice-pres. State, Wm. H. Seward, N. Y., March 5, 1861; Treas., Salmon P. Chase. O., March 5, 1861, Wm. Pitt Fessenden, Me., July 1, 1864; War, Simon Cameron, Pa., March 5, 1861, Edwin M. Stanton, Pa., Jan. 15, 1862; Navy, Gideon Welles, Conn., March 5, 1861; Interior, Caleb B. Smith, Ind., March 5, 1861, John P. Usher, Ind., Jan. 8, 1863; Postmaster Genl., Montgomery Blair, Md., March 5, 1861, William Dennison, O., Sept. 24, 1864; Atty. Genl., Edward Bates, Mo., March 5, 1861, T. J. Coffey, Pa., June 22, 1863, James Speed, Ky., Dec. 2, 1864.

I.20.22

—20TH ADMINISTRATION. Abraham Lincoln, Ill., pres., Andrew Johnson, Tenn., vice-pres. State, Wm H. Seward, N. Y., March 4, and April 15, 1865; Treas., Hugh McCulloch, Ind, March 7, and April 15, 1865; War, Edwin M. Stanton, Pa., March 4, and April 15, 1865, (suspended Aug. 12, 1867, reinstated Jan. 14, 1868), U. S. Grant, Ill., Aug. 12, 1867, Lorenzo Thomas, Del., Feb. 21, 1868, John M. Schofield, Ill., May 28, 1868; Navy, Gideon Welles, Conn., March 4, and April 15, 1865; Interior, John P. Usher, Ind., March 4, and April 15, 1865. James Harlan, Iowa, May 15, 1865, O. H. Browning, Ill., July 27, 1866; Postmaster Genl., William Dennison, O., March 4, and April 15, 1865, Alex. W. Randall, Wis., July 25, 1866; Atty. Genl., James Speed, Ky., March 4, and April 15, 1865, Henry Stanbery, O., July 23, 1866, Wm. M. Evarts, N. Y., July 15, 1868.

I.20.23

—21ST ADMINISTRATION. U. S. Grant, Ill., pres., Schuyler Colfax, Ind., vice-pres. State, E. B. Washburne, Ill., March 5, 1869, Hamilton Fish, N. Y., March 11, 1869; Treas., Geo. S. Boutwell, Mass., March 11, 1869; War, John A. Rawlins, Ill., March 11, 1869, Wm. T. Sherman, O., Sept. 9, 1869, Wm. W. Belknap, Iowa, Oct. 25, 1869; Navy, Adolph E. Borie, Pa, March 5, 1869, Geo. M. Robeson, N. J., June 25, 1869; Interior, Jacob D. Cox, O., March 5, 1869, Columbus Delano, O., Nov. 1, 1870; Postmaster Genl, John A. J. Creswell, Md., March 5, 1869; Atty. Genl., E. Rockwood Hoar, Mass., March 5, 1869, Amos T. Akerman, Ga., June 23, 1870, George H. Williams, Or., Dec. 14, 1871.

I.20.24

—22ND ADMINISTRATION. U. S Grant, Ill., pres., Henry Wilson, Mass., vice-pres. State, Hamilton Fish, N. Y., March 4, 1873; Treas., Wm. A. Richardson, Mass., March 17, 1873, Benj. H. Bristow, Ky., June 2, 1874, Lot M. Morrill, Me., June 21, 1876; War, Wm. W. Belknap, Iowa, March 4, 1873, Alphonso Taft, O., March 8, 1876. James Donald Cameron, Pa., May 22, 1876; Navy, George M. Robeson, N. J., March 4, 1873; Interior, Columbus Delano, O., March 4, 1873, Zachariah Chandler, Mich., Oct. 19, 1875; Postmaster Genl., John A. J. Creswell, Md., March 4, 1873, Marshall Jewell, Conn., Aug. 24, 1874, James M. Tyner, Ind., July 12, 1876; Atty. Genl., Geo. H. Williams, Or., March 4, 1873, Edwards Pierrepont, N. Y., April 26, 1875, Alphonso Taft, O., May 22, 1876.

I.20.25

—23RD ADMINISTRATION. Rutherford B. Hayes, O., pres., Wm. A. Wheeler, N. Y. vice-pres. State, Wm. M. Evarts, N. Y., March 12, 1877; Treas., John Sherman, O., March 8, 1877; War, George W. McCrary, Iowa, March 12, 1877, Alexander Ramsey, Minn., Dec. 10, 1879; Navy, Richard W. Thompson, Ind., March 12, 1877, Nathan Goff, W. Va., Jan. 10, 1881; Interior, Carl Schurz, Mo., March 12, 1877; Postmaster Genl., David McK. Key, Tenn., March 12, 1877, Horace Maynard, Tenn., Aug. 25, 1880; Atty. Genl., Charles Devens, Mass., March 12, 1877.

I.20.26

—24TH ADMINISTRATION. James A. Garfield, O., pres., Chester A. Arthur, N. Y., vice-pres. State, James G. Blaine, Me., March 5, 1881; Treas., William Windom, Minn., March 5, 1881; War, Robt. T. Lincoln, Ill., March 5, 1881; Navy, William L. Hunt, La., March 5, 1881; Interior, Saml. J. Kirkwood, Iowa, March 5, 1881; Postmaster Genl., Thos. L. James, N. Y., March 5, 1881; Atty. Genl., Wayne Mac-Veagh, Pa., March 5, 1881.

I.20.27

Postmasters General (1789-1829); Samuel Osgood, Mass., Sept. 26, 1789; Timothy Pickering, Pa., Aug. 12, 1791; Joseph Habersham, Ga., Feb. 25, 1795; Gideon Granger, Conn., Nov 28, 1801; Return J. Meigs, O., March 17, 1814; John McLean, O., June 26, 1823.

I.20.28

—See Poore's Political Register; Lanman's Dictionary of Congress; United States Treasury Register (July, 1880); War Department Register (April, 1881). The organization of the Boards of Foreign Affairs, War, Navy, Treasury, and Postoffice, are in 1 Statutes at Large (Bioren and Duane's edition), 585, 591, 620, 631 and 649 respectively. The acts of Aug. 7, Sept. 2, Sept. 15, Sept. 22, and Sept. 24, 1789, May 8, 1794, and April 30, 1798, (above referred to), are in 1 Stat. at Large, 49, 63, 68, 70, 93, 354 and 553 respectively. The act of March 3, 1849 (Interior Dept.), is in 9 Stat. at Large, 395.

ALEXANDER JOHNSTON.

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