Cyclopædia of Political Science, Political Economy, and the Political History of the United States

Edited by: Lalor, John J.
(?-1899)
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Editor/Trans.
First Pub. Date
1881
Publisher/Edition
New York: Maynard, Merrill, and Co.
Pub. Date
1899
Comments
Includes articles by Frédéric Bastiat, Gustave de Molinari, Henry George, J. B. Say, Francis A. Walker, and more.
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BULL

I.166.1

BULL, Papal, authentic acts issued by the court of Rome. A bull—the name of which comes from the Latin word bullare, to seal—in written on parchment in gothic letters, sealed with lead and signed by the pope; it always relates to very important matters; it is drawn up in Latin, and generally named after the first words of the introduction. A brief is concerned with less important subjects. It is sealed with red wax, and signed by the secretary of briefs.

I.166.2

—The collection of bulls is called the bullarium. Several have appeared since 1727, and their importance, from a political point of view as well as from that of the Catholic religion can not be doubted. The changes in the influence of the holy see can be traced in them. Confining themselves at first to the regulation of religious matters, the bulls after Gregory VII. had scarcely any other object than the exercise of political supremacy, religious decisions being given under the form of decrees, constitutions, rescripts, etc. After the reformation the bulls were brought back gradually to their ancient province, and at present the political manifestations of the pope take another form.

I.166.3

—On account of the peculiar constitution of the Catholic church which gives so great an influence to its chiefs, making it almost a state within a state, the reception of bulls is in most countries subjected to a special authorization by the government. In France no bull or any act of general interest can be published without having been examined by the council of state.

MAURICE BLOCK.

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