The Continental System: An Economic Interpretation

Heckscher, Eli F.
(1879-1952)
BIO
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Editor/Trans.
Harald Westergaard, ed. C. S. Fearenside, trans.
First Pub. Date
1918
Publisher/Edition
Oxford: Clarendon Press
Pub. Date
1922
Comments

1. [1] Letters, instructions et mémoires de Colbert (Paris, 1861-73), vol. II, p. cclxvii; vol. VI, pp. 264-5, 269; vol. VII, p. 239; et al. As this side of mercantilist opinion does not appear to be at all generally understood, we may give a somewhat full quotation from Colbert's Dissertation sur la question: quelle des deux alliances, de France ou de Hollande, peut estre plus avantageuse à l' Angleterre (March, 1669), where the point of view is brought out with all the incisive logic of which Colbert was master: 'L'on peut avancer certainement que le commerce de toute l'Europe se fait avec le nombre de 20,000 vaisseaux de toute grandeur; et l'on demeurera facilement d'accord que ce nombre ne peut estre augmenté, d'autant que les peuples sont toujours égaux dans tous les Estats, et que la consommation est pareillement toujours égale.' Finding that one of England's chief considerations in deciding for or against an alliance must be the increase of her shipping, he goes on to say: 'Cette augmentation ne peut provenir que par la découverte de quelque nouveau commerce jusqu'à présent inconnu, ou par la diminution du nombre des vaisseaux de quelqu'une des autres nations. La découverte de quelque nouveau commerce est fort incertaine, et il n'est pas permis de raisonner sur une chose si casuelle, ou, pour mieux dire, si certaine qu'elle n'arrivera pas.... Il faut donc que ce soit par la diminution du nombre des vaisseaux de quelqu'une des autres nations.' Lettres, &c., vol. VI, pp. 264-5. Cf. Sombart, Der moderne Kapitalismus (2nd ed., Munich and Leipzig, 1917), vol. II, p. 918.

2. [2]Schmoller, Umrisse und Untersuchungen zur Verfassungs., Verwaltungs- und Wirtschaftsgeschichte (Leipzig, 1898), p. 95.

3. [3] This subject is obviously too comprehensive for incidental treatment in this connexion. What the writer has in mind is the signal reversal from the mediaeval eagerness to keep goods within reach to the opposite eagerness to dispose of goods which has been the predominant trait both of mercantilist and of popular present-day opinion.

Part I, Chapter I

4. [4] 29 & 30 Char. II, c. 1, s. 70.

5. [5] 1 James II, cc. 3 & 5.

6. [6] 1 W. & M., c. 34, s. 1.

7. [7] Statutes of the Realm, vol. v, pp. 862 et seq.; vol. VI, pp. 98 et seq., et al. Ashley, The Tory Origin of Free Trade Policy, in Surveys Historic and Economic (London, 1900), pp. 277 et seq.; Levasseur, Les traites de commerce entre la France et l'Angleterre, in Revue d'économie politique (1901), vol.XV, pp. 964 et seq.; Adam Smith, The Wealth of Nations (Cannan ed., London, 1904), vol. I, pp. 432, 437-8.

8. [8] W. R. Scott, The Constitution and Finance of English, Scottish, and Irish Joint-Stock Companies (Cambridge, 1911), vol. III, pp. 80 et seq.

9. [9] Adam Smith, op. cit., vol. I, pp. 458 et seq.

10. [10] On this and what follows, cf. Rose, William Pitt and the National Revival (London, 1911), pp. 183 et seq., 322 et seq.; Salomon, William Pitt der jüngere (Leipzig and Berlin, 1906), vol.I, pt.II, pp.205 et seq.; Levasseur, Histoire des classes ouvrières et de l'industrie en France avant 1789 (Paris, 1901), vol. II, pp. 546 et seq.; Levasseur, Histoire du commerce de la France (Paris, 1911), vol. I, pp. 535 et seq., 542 et seq.; also, Histoire de France (Lavisse ed., Paris, 1910), vol. IX, pt. I, pp. 221 et seq. On the situation just after the Eden Treaty, cf. Schmidt, La crise industrielle de 1788 en France, in Revue Historique (Paris, 1908), vol. 97, pp. 78 et seq. The work of F. Dumas, Etude sur le traité de commerce de 1786 (Paris, 1904), was not accessible.

11. [11] Chaptal, De l'industrie françoise (Paris, 1819), vol. I, p. xvi; Levasseur, Histoire des classes ouvrières et de l'industrie en France de 1789 à 1870 (Paris, 1903), vol. I, p. 405.

12. [12] Schmidt, Les débuts de l'industrie cotonnière en France, 1760-1806, in Revue d'histoire économique et sociale (Paris, 1914), vol. VII, pp. 26 et seq.; Ballot, Les prêts aux manufactures, in Revue des études napoléoniennes (Paris, 1912), vol. II, p. 45.

13. [13] Levasseur, Histoire des classes ouvrières, &c., de 1789 à 1870, vol. I, pp. 38 et seq.; Schmidt, Le Grand-duché de Berg, 1806-1813 (Paris, 1905), pp. 326-7.

14. [14] Lois et actes du gouvernement (Paris, 1807), vol. VI, pp. 434-5; vol. VII, pp. 83, 409-10, 464-5, 492 et seq.; Bulletin des lois de la république française, 2d ser., bull. 86, no. 825; bull. 105, no. 1002; Le Moniteur, Sept. 23 and 24, 1793; Oct. 21, 1796; Levasseur, Histoire des classes ouvrières, &c., de 1789 à 1870, vol. I, pp. 38 et seq., 87 et seq., 260; Sorel, L'Europe et la révolution française (Paris, 1893), vol. III, pp. 476-7; vol. v, pp. 116, 124; Schmidt, Le Grand-duché de Berg, pp. 326 et seq.; Chapuisat, Le commerce et l'industrie à Genève pendant la domination française, 1798-1813 (Geneva and Paris, 1908), Annexe XIV; Rose, William Pitt and the Great War (London, 1911), pp. 103-4; Kiesselbach, Die Continentalsperre in ihrer ökonomisch-politischen Bedeutung (Stuttgart and Tübingen, 1850), pp. 55-6.

Part I, Chapter II

15. [15] Söderqvist, Le blocus maritime (Stockholm, 1908), pp. 44-5.

16. [16] Lydia Wahlström, Sverige och England under revolutionskrigens börjar (Stockholm, 1917), pp. 192-3; Parliamentary History, vol. XXXII, pp. 235-6.

17. [17] See p. 94.

18. [18] Manning, Commentaries on the Law of Nations (London, 1839), p. 117.

19. [19] Stephen, War in Disguise: or, the Frauds of the Neutral Flags (Piggott ed., London, 1917), pp. 106-7.

20. [20] Lecky, History of England in the Eighteenth Century (original library edition, London, 1882), vol. IV, p. 157.

21. [21] Holm, Danmark-Norges udenrigske Historie fra 1791 til 1807 (Copenhagen, 1875), vol. I, p. 231; Stephen, op. cit., p. 170.

22. [22] Stephen, op. cit., pp. 60 et seq., 90, 195, et al.; Emory Johnson and others, History of the Domestic and Foreign Commerce of the United States (Washington, 1915), vol. II, p. 23; Parliamentary History, vol. XXXV, p. 916; Hansard's Parliamentary Debates, vol. XXIII, pp. 8, 42-3.

23. [23] Brodnitz, Englische Wirtschaftsgeschichte (Jena, 1918), vol. I, p. 140.

24. [24] Hansard, vol. IX, app., col. XV; Levasseur, Histoire des classes ouvrières, &c., avant 1789, vol. II, p. 554 note; Johnson and others, op. cit., vol. II, p. 20.

25. [25] Stephen in the House of Commons, Mar. 3, 1812, Hansard, vol. XXI, p. 1136.

26. [26] Stephen, War in Disguise, p. 168.

27. [27] Stephen, War in Disguise, pp. 39, 70 et seq., 169, et al.; Rose, vice president of the Board of Trade in the House of Commons, March 3, 1812, Hansard, vol. XXI, p. 1122; Mahan, Influence of Sea Power upon the French Revolution and Empire, 1793-1812 (London, 1893), vol. II, pp. 252 note, 309; The Laws of England (Halsbury ed., London, 1907), s.v. Aliens, vol. I, pp. 311-12; Wahlström, op. cit., pp. 62-3. In this connexion it may not be irrelevant to refer as a parallel to a well-known passage in the Pickwick Papers (ch. 40): 'What, am I to understand that these men earn a livelihood by waiting about here to perjure themselves before the judges of the land, at the rate of half a crown a crime!' exclaimed Mr. Pickwick, quite aghast at the disclosure. 'Why, I don't know exactly about perjury, my dear sir,' replied the little gentleman. 'Harsh word, my dear sir, very harsh word indeed! It's a legal fiction, my dear sir, nothing more.'

28. [28] See p. 33.

29. [29] Martens, Recueil des principaux traités (2d ed., Göttingen, 1826), vol. v, pp. 596-604; Annual Register, 1793, State Papers, pp. 176 et seq.; Stephen, op. cit., p. 175 note, 18 et seq., 33; Holm, op. cit., vol. I, pp. 106-15, 171 et seq.; Mahan, op. cit., vol. II. pp. 233 et seq.; also, Sea Power in its Relations to the War of 1812 (London, 1905), vol. I, pp. 27, 89-90, 93; Wahlström, op. cit., pp. 10 et seq., 62-3, 99, 126; Bassett, The Federalist System, 1789-1801, in The American Nation: A History (New York and London, 1906), vol. II, pp. 122-3, 129; Klinckowström, Le Comte de Fersen et la cour de France (Stockholm, 1878), vol. II, p. 419; Lars von Engeström, Minnen och anteckningar (Stockholm, 1876), vol. I, pp. 235 et seq.

30. [30] Büsch, Sämmtliche Schriften über die Handlung (Hamburg, 1825), vol. v, pp. 278-9.

31. [31] Correspondance de Napoléon Ier (Paris, 1858-1869), no. 18,491 (Feb. 8, 1812).

32. [32] Lois et actes, &c., vol. VII, pp. 52-3; Bulletin des lois, &c., 2d ser., bull. 178, no. 1,678; bull. 235, no. 2,118; Martens, op. cit., 2d ed., vol. v, pp. 388-9, 398-9; vol. VI, pp. 743-4; Büsch, op. cit., chs. VIII-IX; Holm, op. cit., vol. I, pp. 69, 175-6, 195, 222 et seq., 232-50, 258, 266-7, 307, 313; Mahan, Influence of Sea Power, &c., vol. II, pp. 219-20, 243 et seq., 255 et seq.; Bassett, op. cit., pp. 220-21. For the whole of this part of the subject, cf. also Söderqvist, op. cit., pp. 18-49; Report of the Fourth Special Committee of the Swedish Second Chamber for 1902, no. 8, pp. 54-61; The Armed Neutralities of 1780 and 1800, edited by James Brown Scott (Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, Division of International Law. New York, 1918); Hugo Larsson, Sveriges deltagande i den väpnade neutraliteten, 1800-1801 (Lund, 1888); Clason, Gustaf IV Adolf och den europeiska krisen under Napoleon (Stockholm, 1913).

Part I, Chapter III

33. [33] See p. 32.

34. [34] Schmidt, Le Grand-duché de Berg, p. 418.

35. [35] Le Moniteur, Jan. 3, 1793; Sorel, op. cit., vol. m, pp. 244-5.

36. [36] Commentaires de Napoléon Ier (Paris, 1867), vol. III, p. 413. As the essay is not included in the Correspondance, the authorship of the Emperor does not appear to be above doubt.

37. [37] See pp. 31-32.

38. [38] Zeyss, Die Entstehung der Handelskammern und die Industrie am Niederrhein während der französischen Herrschaft (Leipzig, 1907), p. 94; Schmidt, Le Grandduché de Berg, pp. 339 et seq.; Serviéres, L'Allemagne française sous Napoléon Ier (Paris, 1904), pp. 128-9; Wohlwill, Neuere Geschichte der Freien und Hansestadt Hamburg insbesondere von 1789 bis 1815, in Allgemeine Staaten-Geschichte (Gotha, 1914), Abt. III, Werk x, pp. 181 et seq., 197, 202 note 2; also, Frankreich und Norddeutschland von 1795 bis 1800, in Historische Zeitschrift (1883), pp. 424-5.

39. [39] Sorel, op. cit., vol. IV (1892), pp. 176, 183, 213, 266 et seq., 359, 387 et seq., 392, 464; vol. V (1903), p. 102.

40. [40] Le Moniteur, Nov. 4, 1796; Mahan, Influence of Sea Power, &c., vol. II, pp. 248 et seq. Dupont de Nemours combated the proposal, as might have been expected of an orthodox economist; but when the President announced that the motion of Lecouteulx had been carried another member exclaimed: 'Nous sommes sauvés!' Le Moniteur, Nov. 6 (Brumaire 16).

41. [41] Preussen und Frankreich von 1795 bis 1807, in Publicationen aus den K. Preussischen Staatsarchiven, VIII (Bailleu ed., Leipzig, 1881), vol. I, p. 113; Mahan, Influence of Sea Power, &c., vol. II, pp. 247-8. Admiral Mahan, however, appears to believe in the truth of this altogether unfounded rumour, for the facts of which cf. Wohlwill, Neuere Geschichte, &c., pp. 161, 188-9.

42. [42] See infra, p. 74.

Part I, Chapter IV

43. [43] Le Moniteur, Jan. 15, 1793.

44. [44] Chaptal, Mes souvenirs sur Napoléon (Paris, 1893, but written shortly after 1815), pp. 274-9; Lettres inédites de Napoléon Ier (Lecestre ed., Paris, 1897), no. 134.

45. [45] Macaulay, History of England (1st ed., London, 1855), vol. IV, ch. XIX, pp. 327-9; Burke, Observations on a late publication intituled 'The Present State of the Nation' (1769); Adam Smith, op. cit., vol. II, pp. 396, 407-8, 414-15; The National Debt, 1786-1890 (Blue Book, C. 9010, London, 1891), p. 72; Kiesselbach, op. cit., p. 70 note; Miss Cunningham, British Credit in the Last Napoleonic War (Cambridge, 1910), pp. 17-18, 27 et seq.

46. [46] Correspondance: Communications as regards Finances and the Banque de France; e.g., on the former, no. 21,020 (Dec. 19, 1813); on the latter, no. 6,040 (Apr. 15, 1802), no. 14,305 (Sept. 8, 1808), nos. 16,438, 16,448, 16,471 (May 5, 9, 15, 1810); Mollien, Mémoires d'un ministre du trésor public, 1780-1815 (Gomel ed., Paris, 1898), vol. II, pp. 411-33, 465 et seq., et al. Less weighty in this connexion are the utterances of the great speculator Ouvrard, Mémoires sur sa vie et ses diverses opérations financières (Paris, 1827), vol. I, pp. 73, 135, 195, 201; G. Weill, Le financier Ouvrard, in Revue Historique (Paris, 1918), vol. 127, p. 47; Sorel, op. cit.) vol. VI, pp. 212, 242.

47. [47] Mollien, op. cit., vol. I, pp. 185 et seq., &c.

48. [48] See p. 62.

49. [49] Correspondance, nos. 9,929 (Mar. 5, 1806), 14,413 (Oct. 25, 1808), 21,020 (Dec. 19, 1813), &c.

50. [50] Rose, Napoleon and British Commerce (1893), reprinted in Napoleonic Studies (London, 1904), p. 167; also in his chapter on 'The Continental System' in The Cambridge Modern History (Cambridge, 1906), vol. IX, p. 363; Correspondance, no. 6,611; Kiesselbach, op. cit., ch. III; Miss Cunningham, op. cit., ch. IV; Porter, The Progress of the Nation (new ed., London, 1851); sec. IV, ch. IV, p. 507 (on the basis of a return to the British Parliament in 1815); Tooke, A History of Prices from 1793 to 1837 (London, 1838), vol. I, pp. 208-9; Hawtrey, The Bank Restriction of 1797 in the Economic Journal (1918), vol. XVIII, pp. 52 et seq., rept. in Currency and Credit (London, 1919). ch. XVI. The figures of Mr. Hawtrey (p. 56) agree with those of Tooke, if they are taken to include the loan to the Emperor, though they are said to exclude it. The total of Tooke (£42,174,556) is wrong by one million, according to his own figures. I have followed him with the necessary correction, not having had access to the Parliamentary Paper from which he secured his data.

51. [51] Adam Smith, op. cit., vol. I, pp. 407-11.

52. [52] See pt. IV, ch. IV.

53. [53] See p. 42.

54. [54] Tooke, op. cit., vol. I, pp. 197-207, 239-52; vol. II, p. 384.

55. [55] Correspondance, nos. 16,508, 13,718; Servières, op. cit., p. 136, note 3, pp. 138-9; Mollien, op. cit., vol. 1, p. 493. The letter to King Louis is printed in the Correspondance from the Mémoires de Ste-Hélène, and is dated from a place where the Emperor arrived only a fortnight later; but there does not appear to be any reason for doubting its authenticity.

56. [56] Trolle-Wachtmeister, Anteckningar och minnen (Tegnér ed., Stockholm, 1889), vol. II, p. 74; Mollien, op. cit., vol. II, p. 155, et al.

57. [57] Correspondance, no. 12,187; Ballot, loc. cit., vol. II, pp. 48-9; Mollien, op. cit., vol. III, pp. 19-25; Chaptal, Mes souvenirs, &c., p. 285; Correspondance, no. 13,063.

Part II, Chapter I

1. [1] Sorel, L'Europe et la révolution française, vol. VI, pp. 22-3; Holm, Danmark-Norges Historie fra den store nordiske Krigs Slutning til Rigernes Adskillelse, 1720-1814 (Copenhagen, 1912), vol. VII, pt. I, pp. 42-3. Cf. also de Watteville, Souvenirs d'un douanier du Premier Empire (Boucher de Perthes), in Revue Napoléonienne (N.S., Rome, 1908), vol. II, p. 71.

2. [2] The value of British exports in the years 1801-3 is shown by the following figures taken from Porter, The Progress of the Nation, p. 356.

United Kingdom
produce and manufacture
Foreign and
colonial merchandise
Year Real values Official values Official values

1801 £39,730,000 £24,930,000 £10,340,000
1802 45,100,000 25,630,000 12,680,000
1803 36,130,000 20,470,000 8,030,000

The first column expresses the change in the value of the exports, while the other two express rather the change in their quantity. The figures in Hansard's Parliamentary Debates (vol. IX, app., cols. XV-XVi) differ somewhat from these, but show no divergence in their general tendency. Dr. Rose bases his conclusions on the shipping figures, which, however, according to his own statement, show a quite insignificant decline of 3-2 per cent., and, according to Porter's figures (pp. 397-8), even a slight rise of 6-5 per cent.

3. [3] Rose, in Napoleonic Studies (London, 1904), pp. 173 et seq.; Sorel, op. cit., vol. VI, pp. 168, 190, 207, 211-12, 249-50; Levasseur, Histoire des classes ouvrières, &c., de 1789 à 1870, vol. 1, pp. 465-6; Pelet, Opinions de Napoléon sur divers sujets de politique et d'administration (Paris, 1833), pp. 238-9; Cunningham, The Growth of English Industry and Commerce in Modern Times (3d ed., Cambridge, 1903), pp. 675-6; Smart, Economic Annals of the Nineteenth Century, 1801-1820 (London, 1910), pp. 57, 72; Roloff, Die Kolonialpolitik Napoleons I, in Historische Bibliothek (Munich and Leipzig, 1899), vol. X, pp. 134 et seq.

4. [4] G. F. & C. Martens, Nouveau recueil de traités (G&ouuml;ttingen, 1817), vol. I, pp. 433-9; Smart, op. cit., vol. I, pp. 70-1; Stephen, War in Disguise, p. 31.

5. [5] The principal changes in French customs duties on colonial produce from 1802 to 1810 are tabulated in app. II, from which a better view of the situation may perhaps be obtained than from the enumeration in the text.

6. [6] Bulletin des lois, &c., 3d ser., bull. 203, no. 1,849; bull. 276, no. 2,752; bull. 287, no. 2,822; bull. 353, no. 3,669; 4th ser., bull. 29, no. 483; bull. 74, no. 1,324; bull. 78, no. 1,371; bull. 89, no. 1,515; Wohlwill, Neuere Geschichte, &c., pp. 271 et seq.; Vogel, Die Hansestädte und die Kontinentalsperre, in Pfingsblatter des Hansischen Geschichtsvereins (Munich and Leipzig, 1913), vol. IX, pp. 12 et seq.; König, Die sächsische Baumwollenindustrie am Ende des vorigen Jahrhunderts und während der Kontinentalsperre, in Leipziger Studien auf dem Gebiete der Geschichte, 45th ser. (Leipzig, 1899), vol. III, pp. 30, 43-4; Legrand, La révolution française en Hollande (Paris, 1895), pp. 309, 311, 327, 353; de Cérenville, Le système continental et la Suisse, 1803-1813 (Lausanne, 1906), pp. 36 et seq.; Levasseur, Histoire des classes ouvrières, &c., de 1789 à 1870, vol. I, pp. 467 et seq., 422 note 4; Schmidt, Le Grandduché de Berg, pp. 333 et seq.; Roloff, op. cit., pp. 132, 205 et seq.; Darmstädter, Studien zur Wapoleonischen Wirtschaftspolitik, in Vierteljahrschrift für Social- und Wirtschaftsgeschichte (1905), vol. III, pp.122-3; Rambaud, Naples sous Joseph Bonaparte, 1806-1808 (Paris, 1911), p. 436.

Part II, Chapter II

7. [7] Correspondence de Napoléon Ier, no. 16,127 (Jan. 10, 1810).

8. [8] Sorel, op. cit., vol. VII, pp. 55, 104, 114; memorial printed in Tarle, 'Kontinental'naja blokada (Moscow, 1913), vol. I, p. 706; Correspondance, nos. 11,064, 11,271, 11,267, 11,283 (Berlin decree).

9. [9] Correspondance, nos. 16,127, 17,014 (Jan. 10, Oct. 7, 1810); Hansard, vol. XIII, app., pp. xxxiii et seq.; Mahan, Influence of Sea Power, &c., vol. II, pp. 273, 281-2; cf. also p. 245; also, Sea Power in its Relations, &c., vol. I, pp. 143, 189 note 1.

10. [10] Hansard, vol. X, p. 473.

11. [11] Cited ante, p. 60.

12. [12] Correspondance, nos. 11,378, 13,395; Servières, L'Allemagne française, &c., pp. 129-30.

13. [13] Mahan, Influence of Sea Power, &c., vol. II, pp. 353 et seq.

14. [14] Vogel, op. cit., pp. 4 et seq.; Tarle, Deutsch-französische Wirtschaftsbeziehungen zur napoleonischen Zeit, in Schmollers Jahrbuch für Gesetzgebung (1914), vol. XXXVIII, p. 679; Schäfer, Bremen und die Kontinentalsperre, in Hansische Geschichtsblätter (1914), vol. XX, p. 414 et seq.; Levasseur, Histoire du commerce de la France, vol. II, p. 19; Mahan, Influence of Sea Power, &c., vol. II, p. 251; Johnson and others, History of the Domestic and Foreign Commerce, &c., vol. II, pp. 20 et seq.

Part II, Chapter III

15. [15] The expression was cited by Perceval in the House of Commons, Feb. 5, 1808. Hansard, vol. X, p. 328.

16. [16] For the following account reference may be made, not only to the works previously cited, viz., those by Mahan, Roloff, Levasseur, Holm, Stephen (the quotation on p. 107 comes from his pp. 81-2), Johnson (from whom is taken the table on p. 103), and Martens, as well as to the Statutes at Large of the United Kingdom and Hansard's Parliamentary Debates, but also to J. B. McMaster's chapter in the Cambridge Modern History (Cambridge, 1903), vol. VII, pp. 323 et seq., and Channing, The Jeffersonian System, 1801-1811, in The American Nation: A History (New York and London, 1906), vol. XI, chs. 13-15. The quotation from McMaster on p. 104 is taken from his History of the People of the United States, vol. III, p. 225 (ap. Johnson, op. cit., vol. II, p. 28).

17. [17] See p. 36.

18. [18] See ante, pp. 45 and 81.

19. [19] According to Porter (op. cit., p. 396), the number of ships captured and incorporated with the British mercantile fleet was as follows:

Year Ships Year Ships Year Ships Year Ships
1801 2,779 1804 2,533 1807 2,764 1810 3,903
1802 2,827 1805 2,520 1808 3,222 1811 4,023
1803 2,286 1806 2,564 1809 3,547 1812 3,899

20. [20] See ante, p. 103.

21. [21] 45 Geo. III, cc. 34 & 57; 46 Geo. III, c. 111.

22. [22] See ante, p. 81.

23. [23] Mahan, Influence of Sea Power, &c., vol. II, pp. 269-70; also, Sea Power in its Relations, &c., vol. I, p. 108.

24. [24] See ante, p. 103.

25. [25] Hansard, vol. IX, p. 687 (June 30, 1807).

26. [26] All these Orders in Council of 1807 are printed in Hansard, vol. X, pp. 126-48; but as some of them are not readily accessible outside of Great Britain, and as they are, moreover, very often incorrectly summarized, they are reproduced in app. I from Hansard.

27. [27] See ante, p. 99.

28. [28] Lord Eldon in the House of Lords, Feb. 15, 1808 (Hansard, vol. X, p. 475); Perceval in the House of Commons, Feb. 4, 1807 (Hansard, vol. VIII, p. 629). Lord Howick's declaration is given in Hansard, vol. X, pp. 402 et seq. Linvald, Bidrag til Oplysning om Danmark-Norges Handel og Skibsfart, 1800-1807, in Dansk Historisk Tidsskrift, VIII (1917), vol. VI, pp. 409, 433-4.

29. [29] See ante, p. 99.

30. [30] Lord Brougham, Life and Times of, written by himself (2d ed., London, 1871), vol. II, pp. 5, 7; Speeches of (Edinburgh, 1838), vol. I, p. 404; Stephen, War in Disguise, &c., pp. 38 et seq., 116 et seq., 163 et seq., 171; Hansard, vol. VIII, pp. 620-56; vol. IX, pp. 85-101, 1152-3; app. pp. lxxxi et seq.; Porter, op. cit., p. 379.

31. [31] 48 Geo. III, co. 26, 28, 29, 33, 34 and 37.

32. [32] Hansard, vol. X, pp. 482-3; vol. XII, p. 774.

33. [33] The reader is here referred to the text of the Orders in Council in app. I.

34. [34] See app. i, no. v.

35. [35] Cf., for instance, the utterances of Lord Bathurst, the president of the Board of Trade, and Lord Hawkesbury (afterwards Lord Liverpool), the home secretary; in the House of Lords, Feb. 15, 1808 (Hansard, vol. X, pp. 471, 485).

36. [36] The figures relating to prices will be found in Tooke, A History of Prices, &c., vol. II, pp. 398, 414.

37. [37] 48 Geo. III, c. 26, s. 16 (the Principal 'Orders in Council Act'). Cf. Lord Erskine in the House of Lords, Mar. 8, 1808 (Hansard, vol. X, pp. 966-7).

38. [38] This seems to the writer to be the only possible interpretation of the most obscure of all the ordinances, namely, the Order in Council of Nov. 25, 1807 (printed as no. IX in app. I), which is clearly the one alluded to by Grenville in his utterance previously cited (pp. 114-15), compared with the Order in Council of the same day (printed as no. X).

39. [39] House of Commons, Feb. 22 and 24, Mar. 16, 1808 (Hansard, vol X, pp. 695-6, 728, 1168); 48 Geo. III, cc. 29, 33, 34.

40. [40] House of Lords, Feb. 28, 1812. Hansard, vol. XXI, p. 1053. Almost to the same effect, of. Rose, vice president of the Board of Trade, in the House of Commons, Mar. 3, 1812, and Perceval on the same day and Apr. 17, 1812. Hansard, vol. XXI, pp. 1120, 1153; vol. XXII, p. 434. Cf. also, Lord Wellesley's utterance in 1811 (see below, p. 208).

41. [41] See ante, p. 99.

42. [42] The following are a few examples: First standpoint: Canning in the House of Commons, Mar. 3, 1812 (Hansard, vol. XXI, p. 1147); Lord Sidmouth, the former and far from eminent prime minister under the name of Addington, in the House of Lords, Feb. 17, 1809, and Feb. 28, 1812 (Hansard, vol. XII, pp. 791-2; vol. XXI, p. 1071). Second standpoint: Lord Auckland, president of the Board of Trade in 'All the Talents' and in his time the eponymous negotiator of the Eden Treaty, in the House of Lords, Feb. 15, 1808 (Hansard, vol. X, p. 468); Lord Henry Petty, chancellor of the exchequer in 'All the Talents' and afterwards Lord Lansdowne, in the House of Commons, Feb. 18, 1808 (Hansard, vol. X, p. 682); Whitbread, one of the principal speakers of the Opposition, in the House of Commons, Mar. 6, 1809 (Hansard, vol. XII, pp. 1167-8). Third standpoint: Lord Grenville, as above (Hansard, vol. X, p. 483). Cf. the more perspicacious criticism of Lord Grey, formerly Lord Howick, in the House of Lords, June 13, 1810 (Hansard, vol. XVII, pp. 545 et seq).

43. [43] For the Scandinavian investigations the reader is referred to the leading authority on Danish history in the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, Professor Edvard Holm, Danmark-Norges Historie fra 1720 til 1814, vol. VII.

44. [44] First Milan decree: Bulletin des lois, &c., 4th ser., bull 172, no. 2,912. Second Milan decree: Correspondance, no. 13,391; cf. also, Napoleon to Champagny, Jan. 10, 1810, no. 16,127; also, Napoleon to Decrès, no. 13,398.

45. [45] Correspondance, no. 13,393; Martens, Nouveau recueil, &c., vol. I, pp. 458 et seq.

Part II, Chapter IV

46. [46] The best survey of American developments in this field is to be found in Mahan, Sea Power in its Relations, &c., vol. I, ch. IV. Diplomatic correspondence and other relevant matter is to be found in Hansard, as well as in The Statutes at Large of the United States of America.

47. [47] United States Statutes at Large, vol. II, p. 379.

48. [48] See ante, p. 91.

49. [49] See ante, p. 103.

50. [50] United States Statutes at Large, vol. II, p. 451.

51. [51] Cf. Lord Grenville in the House of Lords, Feb. 17, 1809. Hansard, vol. XII, p. 774.

52. [52] Channing, op. cit., vol. XII, p. 201-2.

53. [53] United States Statutes at Large, vol. II, p. 506.

54. [54] Cf. also, Mahan, Sea Power in its Relations, &c.; Channing, op. cit., vol. XII, pp. 216 et seq.; Roloff, op. cit., p. 207; Lord Grenville in the House of Lords, Feb. 17, 1809, and Whitbread in the House of Commons, Mar. 6, 1809 (Hansard, vol. XII, pp. 780, 1167); Tooke, op. cit., vol. II, p. 391 (table); Daniels, American Cotton Trade with Liverpool under the Embargo and Non-intercourse Acts, in American Historical Review (1915-16), vol. XXI, pp. 278, 280; Sears, British Industry and the American Embargo, in Quarterly Journal of Economics, (1919-20), vol. XXXIV, pp. 88 et seq. Cf. also, vol. XXXV, 1920-21, pp. 345 et seq.).

55. [55] The most important debates on this subject were in the House of Lords on Mar. 8, 1808, and Feb. 17, 1809, and in the House of Commons on Mar. 6, 1809. For the diplomatic correspondence, cf. Hansard, vol. XII, pp. 241 et seq.; vol. XIII, app.; vol. XIV, pp. 881 et seq.; vol. XVII, app.

56. [56] Correspondance, no. 13,753

57. [57] United States Statutes at Large, vol. II, p. 528.

58. [58] Vogel, op. cit., p. 36; Rubin, 1807-1814, Studier til Københavns og Danmarks Historie (Copenhagen, 1892), pp. 381-2; Bergwall, Historisk under ättelse om staden Götheborgs betydligaste varu-utskeppningar (Gothenburg, 1820), p. 9 note; Daniels, loc. cit., p. 281.

59. [59] United States Statutes at Large, vol. II, p. 605.

60. [60] Correspondence, nos. 16,080, 16,127, 16,384, 16,736, 16,743; Bulletin des lois, &c., 4th ser., bull. 286, no. 5,402. Memoirs and Correspondence of Lord Wellesley (Pearce ed., London, 1846), vol. III, pp. 116-17, 134 (here, too, can be found the correspondence of 1810-11 between Wellesley, in his capacity as British foreign secretary, and the American minister in London); Le Moniteur, Aug. 9 and Dec. 25, 1810.

61. [61] Napoleon to Eugene, Viceroy of Italy, Sept. 19, 1810, and to Champagny, Dec. 13, 1810 (Correspondence, nos. 16,930, 17,206); decree of Nov. 1, 1810 (Bulletin des lois, &c., 4th ser., bull. 324, no. 6,067; Martens, Nouveau recueil, &c., vol. I, pp. 527-8).

62. [62] United States Statutes at Large, vol. II, p. 651.

63. [63] House of Commons, Apr. 27, 1812 (Hansard, vol. XXII, p. 1061).

64. [64] Correspondance, nos. 17,482 and 17,669. For the speech to the deputies of the Chamber of Commerce, of. Thiers, Histoire du Consulat et de l'Empire (Paris, 1856), vol. XIII, pp. 27 et seq.

65. [65] For the documents issued by Maret and the British Prince Regent, of. Martens, Nouveau recueil, &c., vol. I, pp. 530 et seq,, 542 et seq. For the revocation of the Orders in Council, cf. Hansard, vol. XXII, pp. 853 et seq. (under an incorrect date), and vol. XXIII, pp. 716 et seq. For the debates on the subject in the House of Commons on May 22, 25, 26, and June 16, 19, 23, and in the House of Lords on June 18, 1812, cf. Hansard, vol. XXIII, pp. 286 et seq., 295 et seq., 486 et seq., 496-7, 587 et seq., 600 et seq., 715 et seq. See also Mahan, Sea Power in its Relations, &c., vol. I, pp. 266-76.

66. [66] [The text of this footnote, on p. 146 of the 1922 edition, is missing.—Econlib Editor]

67. [67] Channing, op. cit., p. 228.

68. [68] Daniels, op. cit., p. 278.

Part II, Chapter V

69. [69] See p. 57.

70. [70] Martens, Nouveau recueil, &c., vol. I, p. 483.

71. [71] I have followed the translation of the ukase in Le Moniteur, Jan. 31, 1811. Vandal, in his Napoléon et Alexandre Ier (vol. II, pp. 529-30), refers to this paper, but I have been unable to bring his account into accord with the text of the decree. The Correspondance is, of course, full of the subject.

Part III, Chapter I

1. [1] Quotations from two letters addressed to his brother Jerome, King of Westphalia, on Jan. 23, 1807, and to the Emperor Alexander of Russia on Oct. 23, 1810. Correspondance de Napoléon Ier, nos. 11,682 and 17,071. In consonance with this the representative of Napoleon in Switzerland, Rouyer, declared in 1810 that the Swiss commercial houses were generally only 'commanditaires et expéditionnaires' of the English. Letter reproduced in de Cérenville, Le système continental, &c., p. 337. See also Schmidt, Le Grand-duché de Berg, p. 374, note 2.

2. [2] König, Die Sächsische Baumwollenindustrie, &c., pp. 204 et seq., 215-6.

3. [3] J. G. Rist, Lebenserinnerungen (Poel ed., Gotha, 1880), vol. II, pp. 29-30; Mollien, Mémoires, &c., vol. II, p. 462. Cf. Louis Bonaparte to his brother Jerome, Oct. 15, 1808, in Duboscq, Louis Bonaparte en Hollande, d'après ses lettres (Paris, 1911), no. 185.

4. [4] Mollien, op. cit., vol. II, p. 461; König, op. cit., pp. 180-1; Mahan, Influence of Sea Power, &c., vol. II, p. 305; Tarle, Kontinental'naja blokada, vol. I, pp. 287, 351, 384; Tarle, Deutsch-französische Wirtschaftsbeziehungen, loc. cit., pp. 679-80, 718.

5. [5] Von Rosen to von Engeström, Aug. 7, 1811, in Ahnfelt, Ur Svenska hofvets och aristokratiens lif (Stockholm, 1882), vol. V, p. 259; Peez and Dehn, Englands Vorherrschaft. Aus der Zeit der Kontinentalsperre (Leipzig, 1912), p. 258.

Part III, Chapter II

6. [6] Correspondance, nos. 11,355; 11,356; 11,363; 11,378; 11,383; Proclamation of Dec. 2, 1806, printed in König, op. cit., Anlage 2.

7. [7] For this and what follows concerning the Hanse Towns, cf. Wohlwill, Neuere Geschichte, &c., pp. 339 et seq.; Servières, L'Allemagne francaise, &c., pp. 98 et seq.; Vogel, Die Hansestädte, &c., loc. cit., pp. 18 et seq.; Schäfer, Bremen und die Kontinentalsperre, loc. cit., pp. 416 et seq. Also König, op. cit., pp. 179 et seq., 355 et seq.; Stephen in the House of Commons, Mar. 6, 1809 (Hansard, vol. XIII, app. pp. xxxiii et seq.); Order in Council of Feb. 18, 1807 (Hansard, vol. x, pp. 129 et seq.).

8. [8] Bourrienne, Mémoires sur Napoléon, &c. (Paris, 1829), vol. VII, pp. 291 et seq.

9. [9] Lettres inédites de Napoléon Ier (Lecestre ed.), nos. 523 (Sept. 12, 1809), 823 (June 13, 1811), 826 (June 22, 1811); Servières, op. cit., p. 124; Wohlwill, Neuere Geschichte, &c., p. 300.

10. [10] See ante, p. 123.

11. [11] For the decrees of Aug. 6 and Nov. 13, 1807, cf. König, op. cit., Anlage 2. For the first Milan decree, cf. Bulletin des lois, &c., 4th ser., bull. 172, no. 2 912. For the Tuileries decree, cf. Martens, Nouveau recueil, &c., vol. I, p. 457; Duboscq, op. cit., no. 95 and p. 14; Holm, Danmark-Norges Historie, &c., vol. VII, pt. I, pp. 123-4, 180, 197; Linvald, Bidrag til Oplysning, &c., vol. VI, pp. 448 et seq. The following may also be consulted: France: Levasseur, Histoire des classes ouvrières, &c., de 1789 à 1870, vol. I, pp. 409-10, 422 note 4; Ballot, Les prêts, &c., vol. II, pp. 48-9, 54-5; Mollien, op. cit., vol. II, p. 120. Central Europe: König, op. cit., sec. III; Hasse, Geschichte der Leipziger Messen (Leipzig, 1885), pp. 409 et seq.; Tarle, Kontinental'naja blokada, vol. I, p. 397; Schäfer, op. cit., pp. 434 et seq., tables I-III. Great Britain: Hansard, vol. XIII, app., pp. xxxvii et seq., xliii et seq. (House of Commons, Mar. 6, 1809); trade statistics in Hansard, vols. XIV, XX, XXII, app.; Tooke, A History of Prices, &c., vol. II (tables of imports and prices), vol. I, pp. 273 et seq.; Baines, History of the Cotton Manufacture in Great Britain (1835), p. 350 (table); Mahan, Influence of Sea Power, &c., vol. II, pp. 304 et seq.

12. [12] See ante, p. 164.

13. [13] It should be remarked once for all that the British commercial statistics are not only highly uncertain in themselves, but also show inexplicable variations in different sources. But the relative changes, as a rule, exhibit a considerably better agreement than the absolute numbers, and may therefore be assumed to deserve greater confidence than the latter. For the absolute figures, see post, p. 245.

14. [14] See ante, p. 57.

15. [15] Petitions and speeches in the House of Commons, Feb. 22 and 23, Mar. 10 and 18, 1808 (Hansard, vol. X, pp. 692-3, 708-9, 1056 et seq., 1182-83); Speeches of Whitbread and Alexander Baring in the House of Commons, Mar. 6, 1809 (Hansard, vol. XII, pp. 1169, 1194); Worm-Müller, Norge gjennem nødsaarene 1807-1810 (Christiania, 1917-18), p. 123.

16. [16] Note pour le ministre des relations extérieures, Oct. 7, 1810 (Correspondance, no. 17,014).

17. [17] Darmstädter, Studien zur napoleonischen Wirtschaftspolitik, loc. cit. (1904), vol. II, pp. 596-7. The decline in the exports of France to Spain in 1808, which is there given as amounting to 32,400,000 francs (£1,300,000), cannot possibly have been compensated by British exports, if the table given above is reliable. Probably it largely corresponds to the imports of grain from the United States.

18. [18] McCulloch, Principles of Political Economy (London, 1830), 2d. ed. p. 330; Smart, Economic Annals, &c., vol. I, pp. 122-3, 184. Cf. speech in the House of Commons, June 16, 1812 (Hansard, vol. XXIII, p. 503); Louis Simond, Journal of a Tour and Residence in Great Britain during the years 1810 and 1811, by a French Traveller (New York, 1815), vol. I, p. 242 (under date of Aug. 1, 1810).

19. [19] See post, p. 179.

20. [20] De Cérenville, op. cit., p. 309; Duboscq, op. cit., nos. 117, 118, 126, 146, 158, 159, 160, 167, 178, 189, 190; and pp. 47 et seq.; Correspondance, no. 13, 781. Dutch Ordinances: Martens, Nouveau recueil, &c., vol. I, pp. 458-9, 474-5.

21. [21] Fisher, Studies in Napoleonic Statesmanship: Germany (Oxford, 1903), pp. 338 et seq.; Rubin, 1807—1814, &c., pp. 383-4; Clason, Sveriges Historia intill tjugonde seklet (Stockholm, 1910), vol. IX: A, pp. 26-7; Bergwall, Historisk underrättelse, &c., p. 48 (table); Memoirs and Correspondence of Admiral Lord de Saumarez (Ross ed., London, 1838), vol. II, p. 105; Ahnfelt, op. cit., vol. v, p. 225; Ramm, När Göteborg var frihamn (Gothenburg, 1900), p. 3.

22. [22] Duboscq, op. cit., no. 182.

23. [23] See ante, p. 174.

24. [24] Lettres inédites, nos. 476, 477, 527, 555; Duboscq, op. cit., nos. 209, 220, 277; Schmidt, Le Grand-duché de Berg, pp. 348 et seq.; Wellesley, Memoirs and Correspondence, vol. III, p. 196; Prytz, Kronologiska anteckningar rörande Göteborg (Gothenburg, 1898), p. 95; Bergwall, op. cit., table 3; Channing, op. cit., vol. XII, p. 253; Tarle, Kontinental'naja blokada, vol. I, p. 486.

25. [25] See ante, p. 181.

26. [26] Correspondance, nos. 16,476, 16,713; Duboscq, op. cit., no. 290; Schmidt, op. cit., pp. 350-3; König, op. cit., pp. 225 et seq., 230-1, 238 et seq., 241-2; Darmstädter, Das Grossherzogtum Frankfurt (Frankfurt-am-Main, 1901), pp. 311-12.

27. [27] Hansard, vol. XII, pp. 801; vol. XVI, p. 1043 et seq; d'Ivernois, Effets du blocus continental sur le commerce, les finances et la prospérité des Isles Britanniques (London, 1809: dated July 24); Servières, op. cit., p. 131 note.

Part III, Chapter III

28. [28] For the smuggling and corruption there are almost unlimited materials in the extensive literature bearing upon this subject, particularly in the works of König, Schmidt, Servières, Fisher, de Cérenville, Rambaud, Rubin, Peez and Dehn, and also in the treatises of Tarle and Schäfer. To these, moreover, should be added the work of Chapuisat, Le commerce et l'industrie à Genève, &c., pp. 29 et seq., 44. The quotation from Bourrienne refers to his Mémoires, vol. VIII, ch. XI, pp. 195-6. The quotation from Rist refers to his Lebenserinnerungen, vol. II, pp. 106 et seq. The reference to Simond's Journal will be found in vol. I, p. 242; vol. II, p. 77. As to the trustworthiness of Bourrienne and Rist, cf. Wohlwill, Neuere Geschichte, &c., especially pp. 295 note, 397 note; also his review of Servières, in Hansische Geschichtsblätter for 1906.

29. [29] We know from a letter of Bourrienne to Napoleon in October 1809 that the same situation existed at that time. Lingelbach, Historical Investigation and the Commercial History of the Napoleonic Era, in the American Historical Review (vol. XIX (1913-14), p. 276.

30. [30] See ante, p. 71.

31. [31] De Watteville, Souvenirs d'un douanier, &c., loc. cit., vol. II (1908), p. 113 note 2; vol. III (1909), pp. 78, 82-3. Although the anecdote about Josephine's British goods does not appear in the contemporary letters, but in the much later memoirs, it gains credibility from the assertion of Boucher de Perthes that the ex-Empress often reminded him of the incident during her last years. For the smuggling from Cowes, cf. Kiesselbach, Die Continentalsperre, &c., p. 122. For the rest of the text, cf. Correspondance, nos. 13,718, 16,508; Lettres inédites, nos. 874, 877; Chaptal, Souvenirs, &c., pp. 274-8; Tarle, Kontinental'naja blokada, vol. I, pp. 306-7, 615-6. The authenticity of the letter of 1808 is not altogether above suspicion, but it is in complete consonance with Napoleon's correspondence as a whole.

32. [32] Mollien, Mémoires, &c., vol. III, p. 10.

33. [33] Besides the above-cited passages, cf. especially Napoleon's letters of Sept. 2, 11, and Dec. 18, 1810, and of Jan. 1 and Sept. 3, 1811. Correspondance, nos. 16,859, 16,891, 17,225, 17,257, 18,111.

34. [34] Darmstädter, Das Grossherzogtum Frankfurt, p. 308 note 3. Cf. Perceval in the House of Commons in the Debate on the Budget, 1810. Hansard, vol. XVI, p. 1056. See also Schmidt, Le Grand-duché de Berg, pp. 358-9.

35. [35] Correspondance, no. 16,983; de Cérenville, op. cit., pp. 331-2.

36. [36] Law of Jan. 12, 1912 (Bulletin des lois, &c., 4th ser., bull. 260, no. 5,122); Letters to Eugene of Aug. 6 and Sept. 19, 1810 (Correspondance, nos. 16,767, 16,930); Thiers, Histoire du consulat, &c., bk. XXXVIII, vol. XII, p. 186 note.

37. [37] 3 Geo. III, c. 21. It may be questioned, however, whether the truculence of this statute was seriously meant. The later British measures were, however, made the subject of a very effective article in Le Moniteur of Dec. 9, 1810.

38. [38] Decree of July 9 regarding the incorporation of Holland, sec. 10; decree of Aug. 5 (Trianon tariff); decree of Sept. 27; decree of Oct. 18—aceording to the archives, Oct. 19—(Fontainebleau decree); decree of Nov. 1 (Bulletin des lois, &c., 4th ser., bull. 299, no. 5,724; bull. 304, no. 5,778; bull. 315, no. 5,958; bull. 321, no. 6,040; bull. 324, no. 6,067); Kiesselbach (op. cit., pp. 133-4) gives a translation of the enlarged Trianon tariff of Sept. 27 which is not in the Bulletin des lois. See also Thiers, op. cit.; Levasseur, Histoire des classes ouvrières, &c., de 1789 à 1870, vol. I, pp. 481 et seq.; Zeyss, Die Entstehung der Handelskammern, &c., pp. 140 note, 149 et seq.; Schäfer, op. cit., p. 444; Bourrienne, op. cit., vol. VII, p. 233.

39. [39] Letters to Champagny (Jan. 1) and Savary, minister of police (Jan. 7). Lettres inédites, nos. 733, 748. Cf. letter to Davout (Jan. 1). Correspondance, no. 17,257. See also König, op. cit., p. 237.

40. [40] Brougham's speech will be found in Hansard, vol. XXI, pp. 1110 et seq. Other parliamentary matter, including petitions bearing upon the British licence system, will be found under the following dates: Jan. 29, Mar. 7, 1808; Feb. 17, 1809; May 23, 1810; Feb. 18, 27, 28, Mar. 3, Apr. 16, 17, 27, 29, May 4, 20, June 16, 1812. Hansard, vol. X, pp. 185 et seq., 923 et seq.; vol. XII, pp. 791-2; vol. XVII, pp. 168-9; vol. XXI, pp. 842 et seq., 979 et seq., 1041 et seq., 1092 et seq.; vol. XXII, pp. 411 et seq., 424 et seq., 1057-8, 1118-9, 1152 et seq.; vol. XXIII, pp. 237, 540. Miss Cunningham, British Credit, &c., pp. 62-3; Mahan, Influence of Sea Power, &c., vol. II, pp. 228 et seq., 308; also, Sea Power in its Relations, &c., vol. I, p. 246; Wellesley, Memoirs, &c., vol. III, pp. 195-6; Quarterly Review (May, 1811), vol. V, pp. 457 et seq.; Grade, Sverige och Tilsit-Alliansen, 1807-1810 (Lund, 1913), pp. 424, 428-9, 431; Worm-Müller, op. cit., passim; Jacob Aall, Erindringer som Bidrag til Norges Historie fra 1800-1815 (Christiania, 1844), vol. II, p. 197; Holm, Danmark-Norges Historie, &c., vol. VII: 2, pp. 351-2, 385-6; Servières, op. cit., p. 286. Some very drastic Norwegian instructions to ships' masters may be found in Worm-Müller, op. cit., pp. 501 et seq.

41. [41] See ante, p. 84.

42. [42] See ante, p. 215.

43. [43] Licensing decree of July 25, 1810, printed in Martens, Nouveau recueil, &c., vol. I, p. 512; Correspondance, nos. 16,224, 16,767, 16,810, 16,930; Lettres inédites, loc. cit., nos. 652, 874, 927, 928, 929, 972, 1082; Servières, op. cit., pp. 134-9, 265 et seq.; Schäfer, op. cit., pp. 436-7; Tarle, Kontinental'naja blokada, vol. I, pp. 310-11, 560; Holm, Danmark-Norges Historie, vol. VII: 2, pp. 54-5, 188-9, 267-8, 271-2. The work of Melvin, Napoleon's Navigation System (New York, 1919), has reached me too late to be taken into account.

44. [44] See ante, p. 120.

Part III, Chapter IV

45. [45] See ante, p. 185.

46. [46] Lettres inédites, nos. 803, 830, 837, 845, &c. Prussian ordinances in Martens, Nouveau recueil, &c., vol. I, pp. 514 et seq.: Rist, op. cit., vol. II, pp. 78, 87, 105-6; Bourrienne, op. cit., vol. VII, p. 233; vol. IX, pp. 50-1; Rubin, op. cit., pp. 393 et seq.; Darmstädter, Das Grossherzogtum Frankfurt, pp. 312 et seq. The decree for Frankfurt in Le Moniteur, Nov. 11, 1811; Kiesselbach, op. cit., pp. 135 et seq.; Schmidt, Le Grand-duché de Berg, pp. 375 et seq., 380, 386; Servières, op. cit., pp. 148-9, 273 et seq.; Schäfer, op. cit., pp. 429-30; König, op. cit., pp. 195, 231-2, &c.; Thiers, op. cit., vol. XII, pp. 28 et seq., 191-2; Tarle, Kontinental'naja blokada, vol. I, p. 294; de Cérenville, op. cit., pp. 57 et seq.; Zeyss, op. cit., pp. 140 et seq., Anhang IX; Levasseur, Histoire des classes ouvrières, &c., de 1789 à 1870, vol. I, pp. 485 et seq.

47. [47] Darmstädter, Die Verwaltung des Unter-Elsass (Bas-Rhin) unter Napoleon I, in Zeitschrift für die Geschichte des Oberrheins (N. F., XIX, 1904), pp. 662 et seq.; Tarle, Kontinental'naja blokada, vol. I, pp. 274-5, 280.

48. [48] Tooke, History of Prices, &c., vol. I, pp. 309-10 note.

49. [49] See ante, p. 152.

50. [50] Correspondance, nos. 16,476; 16,713; 17,040; 17,041; 17,062; 17,071; 17,098; 17,099; 17,179; 17,395; 17,517; 18,082; Vandal, Napoléon et Alexandre Ier (Paris, 1893), vol. II, pp. 487 et seq., 508 et seq., 557; vol. III (1896), pp. 208-9, 215-6. The Memorial of 1816 printed in the English Historical Review (1903), vol. XVIII, pp. 122 et seq.; Hansard, vol. XXI, p. 1056; Schinkel-Bergman, Minnen ur Sveriges nyare historia (Stockholm, 1855), vol. VI, pp. 69-70, and app. 10 (letters from Governor Rosen to Bernadotte, the Crown Prince, Karl Johan); Lars von Engeström, Minnen och Anteckningar, vol. II, pp. 182-3, and app. 5 c (letters from von Rosen to von Engeström); Memoirs, &c., of Lord de Saumarez, vol. II, pp. 229 et seq.; Clason, op. cit., vol. IX: A, pp. 26-7, 149-50, 156 et seq., 213. Governor von Rosen's letter of Sept. 8, 1810, is printed in Ahnfelt, op. cit., vol. V, p. 239. See also Bergwall, Historisk underrättelse, &c., table 5; Fröding, Det forna Göteborg (Stockholm, 1903), pp. 115 et seq.; also, Göteborgs Köp- och Handels-gille...1661-1911 (Gothenburg, 1911), pp. 124 et seq.; Ramm, op. cit., pp. 3, 8-9; Grade, op. cit., p. 429.

Part III, Chapter V

51. [51] For the United Kingdom (and in part other countries): Report of the Select Committee on the State of Commercial Credit, Mar. 7, 1811 (Hansard, vol. XIX, pp. 249 et seq.); also the debates and petitions on the subject (Hansard, vol. XIX, pp. 123, 327, 416, 493, 529, 613, 662; vol. XX, pp. 339, 431, 608, 744); Simond, Journal of a Tour, &c., vol. II, pp. 48-9, 265; Tooke, op. cit. (extracts from the Monthly Magazine), vol. I, pp. 300 et seq.; vol. II, pp. 391, 393 et seq. (tables); Smart, op. cit., vol. I, pp. 203-4, 226-7, 263 et seq.

52. [52] See ante, p. 176.

53. [53] Hansard, vol. XXII, app. 1, cols. 1xi-1xii (the total figure for 1806 being corrected). As usual, the figures are for Great Britain only, not for Ireland.

54. [54] After a table in Baines, op. cit., p. 350. To avoid mistakes, it might be well to utter a warning against the natural conclusion that it is possible to read from the figures the relation between manufactures and yarn in the exports; to judge by the years when there are 'real values' available, a doubling of the figures for yearn would give an approximately correct notion of this.

Part III, Chapter VI

55. [55] Darmstädter, Studien zur napoleonischen Wirtschaftspolitik, loc. cit., vol. II, pp. 579-80.

56. [56] Correspondance, no. 18,431. There is a kind of germ of all this in the Memorandum of July 25, 1810, which forms the basis of the licence and Trianon decrees, extracts from which are given in Schmidt, op. cit., p. 358.

57. [57] See ante, p. 74.

58. [58] Correspondance, no. 19,391; Lettres inédites, nos. 1,002, 1,013, 1,018, 1,082; Mollien, op. cit., vol. III, p. 237; Rist, op. cit., vol. II, pp. 142-3, 159-60; Smart, op. cit., vol. I, pp. 335 et seq.; de Cérenville, op. cit., pp. 113, 310; Tarle, Deutsch-französische Wirtschaftsbeziehungen, pp. 686-7; Schmidt, op. cit., pp. 408 et seq.

Part IV, Chapter I

1. [1] Mollien, Mémoires, &c., vol. II, p. 462; vol. III, pp. 32-3.

2. [2] The great advantages accruing to the northern countries in their intercourse with Great Britain constitute the main contention upheld in J. Jepson Oddy's valuable book, European Commerce (London, 1805), and his figures bear out his statements. As regards Russia, he 'cannot help observing how amazingly advantageous its trade is with the British dominions. Not only is the amount of the sales nearly equal to those of all other nations, but it is from Great Britain only that Russia receives a balance in cash' (p. 209).

Part IV, Chapter II

3. [3] Chaptal, De l'industrie françoise, vols. I-II; Levasseur, Histoire des classes ouvrières, &c., de 1789 à 1870, vol. I, especially bk. II, chs. v-vi, and bk. III, chs. ii-iii; Darmstädter, Studien zur napoleonischen Wirtschaftspolitik, loc. cit., vol. II; Tarle, Kontinental'naja blokada, vol. I (devoted almost exclusively to the trade and industry of France); Ballot, Les prêts aux manufactures, loc. cit., vol. II; Schmidt, Jean-Baptiste Say et le blocus continental, in Revue d'histoire des doctrines économiques et sociales (1911), vol. IV, pp. 148 et seq.; also, Les débuts de l'industrie cotonnière en France, 1760-1806, ibid. (1914-19), vol. VII, pp. 26 et seq.; Ballot, Philippe de Girard et l'invention de la filature mécanique du lin, ibid. (1914-19), vol. VII, pp. 135 et seq.; also, La révolution technique et les débuts de la grande exploitation dans la métallurgie française, ibid. (1912), vol. v, pp. 29 et seq. For the incorporated territories, cf. Varlez, Les salaires dans l'industrie gantoise (Brussels, 1901), vol. I, pp. 9-36, and apps. III and IV; vol. II (1904), pp. 24-32; Herkner, Die oberelsässische Baumwollindustrie und ihre Arbeiter (Strassburg, 1887), pp. 35-93; T. Geering, Die Entwicklung des Zeugdrucks im Abendland seit dem XVII. Jahrhundert, in Vierteljahrschrift für Social- und Wirtschaftsgeschichte (1903), vol. I (founded principally upon the great work of A. Jenny-Trümpy, Handel und Industrie des Kantons Glarus, und in Parallele dazu: Skizze der allgemeinen Geschichte der Textilindustrien mit besonderer Berücksichtigung der schweizerischen Zeugdruckerei; Glarus, 1899-1902); Darmstädter, Die Verwaltung des Unter-Elsass, &c., loc. cit., vol. XIX (1904), pp. 631-72; Zeyss, Die Entstehung der Handelskammern, &c., pp. 62-90, 103-29. For comparison with England, cf. especially Mantoux, La révolution industrielle au XVIII siècle. Essai sur les commencements de la grande industrie moderne en Angleterre (Paris, 1906), and Baines, History of the Cotton Manufacture of Great Britain.

4. [4] Cf. a pronouncement of the leading man in the clothing industry, Ternaux, sen., in Conseil général des manufactures, immediately after the Restoration; printed in Levasseur, Histoire des classes ouvrières, &c., de 1789 à 1870, vol. I, p. 732, app. A.

5. [5] Report to the home secretary, June 15, 1808, printed in Tarle, Kontinental'-naja blokada, vol. I, 720-1.

6. [6] Rambaud, Naples sous Joseph Bonaparte, p. 437.

7. [7] The weight of spun yarn in 1812 was 13,470,000 kgs., which with the addition of one-twelfth for loss of weight corresponds to 14,590,000 kgs. of cotton. In comparison with this the supply of Italian and Spanish cotton was 3,000,000-4,000,000 livres (French pounds), or an average of 1,750,000 kgs. Chaptal. op. cit., vol. II, pp. 7, 15.

8. [8] Quoted by Tarle, Kontinental'naja blokada, vol. I, p. 513.

9. [9] Mollien, Mémoires, &c., vol. III, pp. 12, 22 et seq.

10. [10] Varlez, op. cit., vol. I, app. III. The reports of the home secretary are printed in Tarle, op. cit., vol. I, pp. 735 et seq. The Report of the Committee of the Council of Manufactures in 1814 is printed in Levasseur, Histoire des classes ouvrières, &c., de 1789 à 1870, vol. I, pp. 726-7, app. A.

11. [11] Loi relative aux douanes,Dec. 17,1814. Bulletin des lois,&c.,5th ser., bull. 62, no. 529. Cf. Levasseur, Histoire des classes ouvrières, &c.,de 1789 à 1870, vol. I,pp.562 et seq.

12. [12] Besides the above-named works, cf. a petition presented by Cort's son in 1812 (Hansard, vol. XXI, pp. 329 et seq.); Beck, Geschichte des Eisens (Braunschweig, 1897), vol. III, pp. 692 et seq., 1089 et seq.; vol. IV (1899), pp. 165 et seq. Cf. also Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie, s.v. J. C. Fischer.

13. [13] Cf. the brilliant sketch by Professor Arthur Binz, Ursprung und Entwickelung der chemischen Industrie (a lecture delivered at the Berliner Handelshochschule in 1910). His statement as to the development of artificial soda (p. 7 note 2) cannot, however, be brought into accord with the facts; and the use of chlorine bleaching is older than one might infer from his words (p. 10 note 7).

14. [14] Figures given in König, op. cit., p.224.

15. [15] Besides the works mentioned at the beginning of this chapter, cf. also de Cérenville, Le système continental, &c., pp. 306 et seq.; Vogel, Die Hansestädte, &c., loc. cit., p. 35; Rubin, 1807-1814, &c., p. 436.

16. [16] Calculated from figures given in König, op. cit., p. 225. See also Levasseur, Histoire des classes ouvrières, &c., de 1789 à 1870, vol. I, p. 475; Tooke, op. cit., vol. II, p. 414.

Part IV, Chapter III

17. [17] The best general survey is contained in Darmstädter, Studien zur napoleonischen Wirtschaftspolitik, loc. cit. (1905), vol. III, pp. 113 et seq. French commercial statistics are given in the earlier section, vol. II, p. 566 note 1. Cf. also Schmidt, Le Grand-duché de Berg, pp. 342, 413 et seq., 420, app. C (Champagny's report of Aug. 5, 1807); Tarle, Deutsch-französische Wirtschaftsbeziehungen, loc. cit., pp. 699 et seq., 725; Tarle, Kontinental'naja blokada, vol. I, 119, 570, app. XIV (reports of French spies), app. XIX (petition from Leyden); de Cérenville, op. cit., pp. 141-2, 155, 174 et seq., 255 et seq.; Rambaud, op. cit., p. 440 note 3; König, op. cit., pp. 267, 289; Kiewning, Lippe und Napoleons Kontinentalsperre gegen den britischen Handel, in Mitteilungen aus der Lippischen Geschichte und Landeskunde (Detmold, 1908), vol. VI, pp. 161 et seq.; Letters to Fouché and Eugene (Correspondance de Napoléon Ier, nos. 15,874, 16,824). The North Sea coast from a customs point of view: Bulletin des lois, &c., 4th ser., bull. 299, no. 5724; bull. 397, no. 7340; Zeyss, op. cit., pp. 129-30, 261 et seq. (Report of the Krefeld Chamber of Commerce); Vogel, op. cit., pp. 47-8; Schäfer, Bremen und die Kontinentalsperre, loc. cit., vol. xx (1914), p. 428.

18. [18] See ante, p. 53.

19. [19] See ante, p. 86.

20. [20] See ante, pp. 274, 276.

21. [21] De Cérenville, Le système continental, &c.; Chapuisat, Le commerce et l'industrie à Genève, &c.; Geering, op. cit.; Gothein, Wirtschaftsgeschichte des Schwarzwaldes und der angrenzenden Landschaften (Strassburg, 1892), vol. I, pp. 767 et seq., 800, 866.

22. [22] See ante, p. 183.

23. [23] See ante, p. 84.

24. [24] Zeyss, op. cit., p. 367; The different petitions are printed in Schmidt, Le Grand-duché de Berg, app. E, and Zeyss, ibid., Anhang VIII. The actual material for the account in the text is taken substantially from Schmidt's model work.

25. [25] Rubin, op. cit., pp. 436-7, 510.

26. [26] Oddy, in his contemporary description of the commercial conditions of the time, unhesitatingly explains the state of the Russian exchange in this way. Cf. Oddy, European Commerce (London, 1805), p. 197.

27. [27] See ante, p. 173.

28. [28] Vandal, Napoleon et Alexandre Ier, vol. I, pp. 140, 324, 513 (Napoleon's instructions to Caulaincourt, Nov. 12, 1807); Oddy, European Commerce, bk. I, especially pp. 130 et seq., pp. 197-8 (computations by the present writer); Tarle, Kontinental'naja blokada, vol. I, pp. 477, 482, 486; Darmstadter, Studien, &c., vol. II, p. 610; Rose, in the English Historical Review, vol. XVIII, pp. 122 et seq.

29. [29] See ante, p. 262.

30. [30] Hoeniger, Die Kontinentalsperre und ihre Einwirkungen auf Deutschland, in Volkswirtschaftliche Zeitfragen (Berlin, 1905), no. 211, p. 26; Schäfer, op. cit., table IX; Stuhr, Die napoleonische Kontinentalsperre in Mecklenburg, 1806-1813, in Jahrbuch des Vereins fur Mecklenburgische Geschichte und Altertumskunde, 1906, vol. LXXI, tables on pp. 361 et seq.

31. [31] Worm-Müller, Norge gjennem nødsaarene, &c., pp. 82 et seq.

Part IV, Chapter IV

32. [32] The calculation has been made on the basis of the figures given on p. 245,and like those figures, it applies to Great Britain alone (excluding Ireland). But a change has been made in the fact that the trade with Ireland, the Channel Islands, and the Isle of Man has not here been taken into account.

33. [33] 'Erst die Kontinentalsperre zwang England, zum Ersatz für den Entgang des kontinentalen Marktes andere überseeische Absatzgebiete aufzusuchen. Das waren die Levanteländer.' Jenny-Trümpy, op. cit., vol. II, pp. 370-71, quoted in Geering, Entwickelung des Zeugdrucks, &c., p. 422.

34. [34] The figures for 1913 are calculated on the basis of the Statistical Abstract for the United Kingdom.

35. [35] The figures have been collected on the basis of the table in Porter, Progress of the Nation, pp. 275-6. The other statistical data in this section have been taken, where nothing to the contrary is stated, from the same work.

36. [36] See ante, p. 242.

37. [37] Hansard, vol. XXI, p. 330.

38. [38] Miss Cunningham, British Credit, &c., pp. 76-7.

39. [39] It may be allowable to point out how well this result, which was reached early in 1918, is in accordance with later German developments.

40. [40] For this and the following paragraph, cf. the references given above (p. 239, note).

41. [41] 'Britain's Food Supply in the Napoleonic War,' in the Monthly Review (1902), reprinted in Napoleonic Studies, pp. 204 et seq. The later statement by Dr. Rose in his chapter on 'The Continental System', in the Cambridge Modern History, vol. IX, p. 371, is in far better accord with the sources as I read them.

42. [42] Cf. also, Porter, op. cit.; Tooke, op. cit.; Smart, op. cit.; Oddy, op. cit., bk. III; McCulloch, Dictionary, Practical, Theoretical, and Historical, of Commerce and Commercial Navigation (new ed., London, 1852), article on 'Corn Laws and Corn Trade'; Cunningham, Growth of English Industry and Commerce, 3d ed., vol. II, pp. 703 et seq. The British figures corresponding to volume (quarters of 8 bushels) have been recalculated according to weight, 1 bushel being taken as equal to 28.2 kgs.

43. [43] Cp. Ricardo, Principles of Political Economy and Taxation (London, 1817), ch. XIX; Malthus, Principles of Political Economy (London, 1820), ch. III, sec. IX.

44. [44] Computed on the basis of Oddy's figures, op. cit., pp. 234-52; passim.

45. [45] Letters to Archchancellor Cambacérès, Apr. 5 and 25, 1807; to Eugene, Aug. 6 and 31, Sept. 24, 1810; various 'notes' (imperial dictated addresses) dated Jan. 13, Feb. 8, Mar. 11, 1812 (Correspondance, nos. 12,297; 12,470; 16,767; 16,855; 16,946; 18,431; 18,485; 18,568);. Letters to the Italian minister of finance, Mar. 22, 1813 (Lettres inédites de Napoléon Ier, no. 972); Pasquier, Histoire de mon temps: Mémoires (Paris, 1893), vol. 1, ch. XXI; Chaptal, Souvenirs, &c., pp. 291-2; Levasseur, Histoire des classes ouvrières, &c., de 1789 à 1870, vol. 1, pp. 341, 477 note 5; Vandal, op. cit., vol. III, pp. 339, 459.

46. [46] Correspondance, nos. 16,224, 16,508; Lettres inédites, nos. 491, 652 (to Montalivet, July 16, 1810); Hansard, vol. XV, pp. 396-7; Fisher, Studies, &c., p. 344; Stuhr, op. cit., p. 355; Rambaud, op. cit., pp. 426-7; Tarle, Kontinental'naja blokada, vol. I, pp. 486, 494-5.

47. [47] Cf. Worm-Müller, op. cit., the greater part of which is devoted to this subject. For the later years, cf. Rubin, op. cit., ch. X, and Holm, Danmark-Norges Historie, &c., vol. VII: 2; passim. The utterance of Foster may be found in Grade, Sverige och Tilsit-Alliansen, pp. 438-9.

48. [48] Miss Cunningham, British Credit, &c., pp. 4 et seq., pp. 71 et seq.

49. [49] Report of the Select Committee on the High Price of Bullion (1810: House of Commons, 349, table 73).

50. [50] The figures are based on the tables in Porter, op. cit., p. 507, and Tooke, op. cit., vol. I, pp. 352.

51. [51] Memoirs of Sir Thomas Fowell Buxton (3d ed., London, 1849), ch. XXI, pp. 288 et seq.; Ehrenberg, Grosse Vermögen, ihre Entstehung und ihre Bedeutung (Jena, 1903), vol. I, pp. 58 et seq.

52. [52] Report of the Bullion Committee, with examination of witnesses. Hansard. vol. XVII, pp. ccii et seq. The appendices, however, are printed only in the official separate edition (see ante, p. 352 note). Ricardo, Works (McCulloch ed., London, 1852), pp. 267 et seq., 269 et seq., 292 et seq.; Three Letters on the Price of Gold, A Reprint of Economic Tracts (Hollander ed., Baltimore, 1903); Letters to Thomas Robert Malthus, 1810-1823 (Bonar ed., Oxford, 1887), pp. 1, 15 et seq., 19, 20 et seq.; Anonymous [Malthus], in Edinburgh Review (Feb., 1811), pp. 342 et seq., 361 et seq.; Hawtrey, The Bank Restriction of 1797, loc. cit. (1918), vol. XXVIII, p. 64; Tooke, op. cit., vol. I, pp. 157 et seq., 207 et seq., 352 et seq., 375 et seq.; also, A History of Prices from 1839 to 1847, inclusive (London, 1848), pp. 100 et seq.

53. [53] The figures for the exports of precious metal follow tables 69 and 79 in the appendices to the Report of the Bullion Committee, reduced, when necessary, to pounds sterling.

Part IV, Conclusion

54. [54] Duboscq, Louis Bonaparte en Hollande, p. 48; Hoeniger, op. cit., p. 19; Tarle, Kontinental'naja blokada, vol. I, p. 147.

55. [55] Ricardo, Works (High Price of Bullion), p. 265.

56. [56] Speeches in the House of Lords, Feb. 28, 1812; in the House of Commons, Apr. 17, 1812. Hansard, vol. XXI, p. 1055; vol. XXII, p. 435.

57. [57] Mollien, Mémoires, &c., vol. I, pp. 434 et seq., 490 et seq.; vol. II, pp. 129 et seq., 242 (the quotation being from vol. II, p. 132); Ouvrard, Mémoires, &c., vol. I, passim, especially pp. 107 et seq.; Ehrenberg, Grosse Vermögen, &c., vol. I, pp. 72 et seq.; vol. II (1905), pp. 120 et seq. Cf. also, G. Weill, Le financier Ouvrard, loc. cit. (1918), vol. 127, p. 39. An article on Pierre César Labouchère, the head of the Hope firm, in the Revue d'histoire diplomatique for 1913, gives no information on this or related subjects.

58. [58] Världskrigets ekonomi: en studie af nutidens näringslif under krigets inverkan (Stockholm. 1915).

Appendix I

59. [59] The Orders in Council are here reprinted from Hansard, vol. X, pp. 126-48. Although the text, unfortunately, is not very good, it has been followed literally in all respects, including spelling, capitalization, &c. A collation, kindly undertaken at my request by Dr. Knut Petersson, with the text of the Orders as inserted in the London Gazette (all except II, III, VIII, X, and XII of the following series), has shown almost complete conformity with the rendering of Hansard. The chronological order of the original has been preserved; but for the different Orders issued under the same date, the order of the original has been slightly changed to one more logical. The headings have been italicized by the editor for the sake of convenience, and signatures have been omitted. No. IV is signed 'Steph. Cottrell'; all the rest 'W. Fawkener' or 'Fawkner'.

End of Notes

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