An Essay on the Principle of Population

Thomas Robert Malthus
Malthus, Thomas Robert
(1766-1834)
CEE
Display paragraphs in this book containing:
Editor/Trans.
First Pub. Date
1798
Publisher/Edition
London: John Murray
Pub. Date
1826
Comments
6th edition

1. Franklin's Miscell. p. 9.

2. It appears, from some recent calculations and estimates, that from the first settlement of America, to the year 1800, the periods of doubling have been but very little above twenty years. See a note on the increase of American population in Book ii. chap. xi.

3. Price's Observ. on Revers. Pay. vol. i. p. 274. 4th edit.

4. Id. p. 282.

5. See this table at the end of chap. iv. book ii.

6. Polit. Arith. p. 14.

Book I, Chapter II.

7. It will be observed, that I here use the term moral in its most confined sense. By moral restraint I would be understood to mean a restraint from marriage, from prudential motives, with a conduct strictly moral during the period of this restraint; and I have never intentionally deviated from this sense. When I have wished to consider the restraint from marriage unconnected with its consequences, I have either called it prudential restraint, or a part of the preventive check, of which indeed it forms the principal branch.

In my review of the different stages of society, I have been accused of not allowing sufficient weight in the prevention of population to moral restraint; but when the confined sense of the term, which I have here explained, is adverted to, I am fearful that I shall not be found to have erred much in this respect. I should be very glad to believe myself mistaken.

8. As the general consequence of vice is misery, and as this consequence is the precise reason why an action is termed vicious, it may appear that the term misery alone would be here sufficient, and that it is superfluous to use both. But the rejection of the term vice would introduce a considerable confusion into our language and ideas. We want it particularly to distinguish those actions, the general tendency of which is to produce misery, and which are therefore prohibited by the commands of the Creator, and the precepts of the moralist, although, in their immediate or individual effects, they may produce perhaps exactly the contrary. The gratification of all our passions in its immediate effect is happiness, not misery; and, in individual instances, even the remote consequences (at least in this life) may possibly come under the same denomination. There may have been some irregular connexions with women, which have added to the happiness of both parties, and have injured no one. These individual actions, therefore, cannot come under the head of misery. But they are still evidently vicious, because an action is so denominated, which violates an express precept, founded upon its general tendency to produce misery, whatever may be its individual effect; and no person can doubt the general tendency of an illicit intercuorse between the sexes, to injure the happiness of society.

9. The judicious questions which Sir John Sinclair circulated in Scotland, and the valuable accounts which he has collected in that part of the island, do him the highest honour; and these accounts will ever remain an extraordinary monument of the learning, good sense, and general information of the clergy of Scotland. It is to be regretted that the adjoining parishes are not put together in the work, which would have assisted the memory both in attaining and recollecting the state of particular districts. The repetitions and contradictory opinions which occur are not in my opinion so objectionable; as, to the result of such testimony, more faith may be given than we could possibly give to the testimony of any individual. Even were this result drawn for us by some master hand, though much valuable time would undoubtedly be saved, the information would not be so satisfactory. If, with a few subordinate improvements, this work had contained accurate and complete registers for the last 150 years, it would have been inestimable, and would have exhibited a better picture of the internal state of a country than has yet been presented to the world. But this last most essential improvement no diligence could have effected.

10. If the new labourers thrown yearly into the market should find no employment but in agriculture, their competition might so lower the money-price of labour, as to prevent the increase of population from occasioning an effective demand for more corn; or, in other words, if the landlords and farmers could get nothing but an additional quantity of agricultural labour in exchange for any additional produce which they could raise, they might not be tempted to raise it.

11. Sir James Stuart very justly compares the generative faculty to a spring loaded with a variable weight, (Polit. Econ. vol. i. b. i. c. 4. p. 20.) which would of course produce exactly that kind of oscillation which has been mentioned. In the first book of his Political Economy, he has explained many parts of the subject of population very ably.

12. I have expressed myself in this cautious manner, because I believe there are some instances, where population does not keep up to the level of the means of subsistence. But these are extreme cases; and, generally speaking, it might be said, that,

    2. Population always increases where the means of subsistence increase.
    3. The checks which repress the superior power of population, and keep its effects on a level with the means of subsistence, are all resolvable into moral restraint, vice and misery.

It should be observed, that, by an increase in the means of subsistence, is here meant such an increase as will enable the mass of the society to command more food. An increase might certainly take place, which in the actual state of a particular society would not be distributed to the lower classes, and consequently would give no stimulus to population.

Book I, Chapter III.

13. Cook's First Voy. vol. ii. p. 59.

14. Cook's Second Voy. vol. ii. p. 187.

15. Vancouver's Voy., vol. ii. b. iii. c. i. p. 13.

16. Symes's Embassy to Ava, ch. i. p. 129, and Asiatic Researches, vol. iv. p. 401.

17. Cook's First Voy. vol. iii. p. 240.

18. Collins's Account of New South Wales, Appendix, p. 549. 4to.

19. Id. Appen. p. 557. 4to.

20. Collins's Account of New South Wales, Appendix, p. 558.

21. Collins's New South Wales, Appen. p. 559.

22. Id. Appen. p. 563.

23. Id. Appen. p. 583.

24. Collins's New South Wales, Appen. note, p. 562.

25. Id. Appen. p. 560.

26. Collins's New South Wales, Appen. p. 607.

27. See generally, the Appendix to Collins's Account of the English Colony in New South Wales.

28. Collins's New South Wales, Appendix, p. 597.

29. Collins's New South Wales, Appendix, p. 598.

30. Id. c. iii. p. 34, and Appen. p. 551.

Book I, Chapter IV.

31. Robertson's History of America, vol. ii. b. iv. p. 127. et seq. octavo edit. 1780.

32. Franklin's Miscell. p. 2.

33. Robertson, b. iv. p. 129.

34. Robertson, b. iv. p. 106. Burke's America, vol. i, p. 187. Charlevoix, Hist. de la Nouvelle France, tom. iii. p. 304. Lafitau, Mœurs des Sauvages, tom. i. p. 590. In the course of this chapter I often give the same references as Robertson; but never without having examined and verified them myself. Where I have not had an opportunity of doing this, I refer to Robertson alone.

35. Travels to discover the Source of the Nile, vol. ii. pp. 223, 559.

36. Voyage dans l'Intérieur de l'Afrique, tom. i. p. 12, 13.

37. Robertson, b. iv. p. 71. Lettres Edif. et Curieuses, tom. vi. p. 48, 322, 330. tom. vii. p. 20. 12mo. edit. 1780. Charlevoix, tom. iii. p. 303, 423. Hennepin, Mœurs des Sauvages, p. 37.

38. Robertson, b. iv. p. 103.

39. Robertson, b. iv. p. 103. Lettres Edif, passim. Charlevoix, Hist. Nouv. Fr. tom. iii. p. 287. Voy. de Pérouse, c. ix. p. 402, 4to. London.

40. Robertson, b. iv. p. 105. Lettres Edif. tom. vi. p. 329. Major Roger's North America, p. 211. Creuxii Hist. Canad. p. 57.

41. Robertson, b. iv. p. 106. Raynal, Hist. des Indes, tom. iv. c. vii. p. 110, 8vo. 10 vol. 1795.

42. Robertson, b. iv. p. 106. Creuxii Hist. Canad. p. 57. Lafitau, tom. i. p. 590.

43. Robertson, b. iv. p. 72. Ellis's Voyage, p. 198. Burke's America, vol. i. p. 187.

44. Lettres Edif. tom. vii. p. 20, 22.

45. Charlevoix, N. Fr. tom. iii. p. 304.

46. Robertson, b. iv. p. 107. Lettres Edif. tom. ix. p. 140.

47. Robertson, b. iv. p. 107. Lettres Edif. tom. viii. p. 86.

48. Robertson, b. iv. p. 108.

49. Lafitau, Mœurs des Sauv. tom. i. p. 592.

50. Charlevoix, tom: iii. p. 303. Raynal, Hist. des Indes, tom. viii. l. xv. p. 22.

51. Robertson, b. iv. p. 73. Voyage d'Ulloa, tom. i. p. 232.

52. Robertson, b. iv. p. 102. Lettres Edif. tom. viii. p. 87.

53. Lettres Edif. tom. ix. p. 364. Robertson, b. iv. p. 115.

54. Robertson, b. iv. p. 107.

55. Lettres Edif. passim. Voyage d'Ulloa, tom. i. p. 343. Burke's America, vol. i. p. 187. Charlevoix, tom. iii. p. 303, 304.

56. Creuxius says, that scarcely one in thirty reaches manhood (Hist. Canad. p. 57); but this must be a very great exaggeration.

57. Robertson, b. iv. p. 85.

58. Charlevoix, tom., iii, p. 302, 303.

59. Robertson, b. iv. p. 86. Charlevoix, tom. iii. p. 364. Lafitau, tom. ii. p. 360, 361.

60. Lettres Edif. tom. viii. p. 83.

61. Lettres Edif. tom. vii. p. 317. et seq.

62. B. iv. p. 86.

63. Raynal, b. xv. p. 23.

64. Cook, third Voy. vol. iii. ch. ii. p. 520. Voy. de Pérouse, ch. ix.

65. Lettres Edif. tom. viii. p. 79, 339. tom. ix. p. 125.

66. Voyage d'Ulloa, tom. i. p. 349.

67. Id. tom. i. p. 549.

68. Lettres Edif. tom. vi. p. 335.

69. Vancouver's Voy. vol. i. b. ii. c. v. p. 256.

70. Id. c. iv. p. 242.

71. Charlevoix speaks in the strongest terms of the extreme filth and stench of the American cabins, "On ne peut entrer dans leurs cabanes qu'on ne soit impesté:" and the dirt of their meals, he says, "vous feroit horreur." Vol. iii. p. 338.

72. Robertson, b. iv. p. 182. Voyage d'Ulloa, tom. i. p. 340.

73. Meares's Voyage, ch. xii. p. 138.

74. Meares's Voyage, ch. xxiii. p. 252. Vancouver's Voyage, vol. iii. b. vi. c. i. p. 313.

75. Cook's 3d Voyage, vol. ii. p. 305.

76. Id. c. iii. p. 316.

77. Voyage de Pérouse, c. ix. p. 403.

78. Charlevoix; Hist. de la Nouv. France, tom. iii. 202, 203, 429.

79. Robertson, b. iv. p. 147.

80. Robertson, b. iv. p. 147. Lettres Edif. tom. viii. p. 40, 86, & passim. Cook's 3d Voy. vol. ii. p. 324. Meares's Voy. ch. xxiv. p. 267.

81. Robertson, b. iv. p. 172. Charlevoix, Nouv. France, tom. iii. p. 203.

82. Lettres Edif. tom. viii. p. 346.

83. Robertson, b. iv, p. 172. Account of North America, by Major Rogers, p. 250.

84. Robertson, b. iv. p. 150.

85. Robertson b. iv. p. 164.

86. Lettres Edif. tom. vi. p. 205.

87. Robertson, b. iv. p. 164.

88. Lettres Edif. tom. viii. p. 105, 271. tom. vi. p. 266.

89. Cautious as Captain Cook always is, he says of the New Zealanders, "it was but too evident that they have a great liking for this kind of food." Second Voyage, vol. i. p. 246. And in the last Voyage, speaking of their perpetual hostilities, he says, "and perhaps the desire of a good meal may be no small incitement." Vol. i. p. 137.

90. Cook's Third Voyage, vol. ii, p. 271.

91. Meares's Voyage, ch. xxiv. p. 255.

92. Lettres Edif. tom. vi. p. 360.

93. Charlevoix, No. Fr. tom. iii. p. 376.

94. Robertson, b. iv. p. 155. Lettres Edif. tom. vi. p. 182, 360.

95. Lettres Edif. tom. viii. p. 243. Les Chiriguanes multiplièrent prodigieusement, et en assez peu d'années leur nombre monta à trente mille ames.

96. Lafitau, tom. ii. p. 163.

97. These causes may perhaps appear more than sufficient to keep the population down to the level of the means of subsistence; and they certainly would be so, if the representations given of the unfruitfulness of the Indian women were universally, or even generally true. It is probable that some of the accounts are exaggerated, but it is difficult to say which; and it must be acknowledged, that, even allowing for all such exaggerations, they are amply sufficient to establish the point proposed.

98. Robertson, b. iv. p. 129, 130.

99. Lettres Edif. tom. vi. p. 357.

100. Id. p. 321.

101. Id. tom. ix. p. 145.

102. Id. tom. vi. p. 66, 81, 345. tom. ix. p. 145.

103. Id. tom. ix. p. 90, 142. Robertson, b. iv. p. 141.

104. Robertson, note 28 to p. 117, b. iv.

105. Robertson, p. 196.

106. P. 194.

107. Raynal, Histoire des Indes, tom. viii. l. xv. p. 22.

108. Hist. N. Fr. tom. iii. p. 338.

109. Lettres Edif. tom. vi. p. 66, 81, 345. ix. 145.

110. Id. tom. vi. p. 82, 196, 197, 215. ix. 151.

111. Charlevoix, N. Fr. tom. iii. p. 201. Hennepin, Mœurs des Sauv. p. 78.

112. Lettres Edif. tom. vi. p. 167, 220.

113. Id. tom. vi. p. 33.

114. Id. tom. vi. p. 71.

115. Lettres Edif. tom. vii. p. 383. ix. 140.

116. Id. tom. viii. p. 79.

117. Robertson, b. iv. p. 121. Burke's America, vol. i. p. 30.

118. Robertson, b. viii. p. 212.

119. Lettres Edif. tom. ix. p. 381.

120. Id. tom. ix. p. 191.

121. Id. tom. ix. p. 206, 380.

122. Meares's Voyage, ch. xxiv. p. 266.

123. Id. ch. xi. p. 132.

124. Vancouver's Voyage, vol. ii. b. ii. c. ii. p. 273.

125. Id. ib. p. 282.

126. Id. vol. iii. b. vi. c. i. p. 304.

127. Voyage de Pérouse, ch. ix. p. 400.

128. Sketches of the History of Man, vol. i. p. 99, 105, 8vo. 2d edit.

129. Robertson, b. iv. p. 141.

130. Lettres Edif. tom. vii. p. 21. Robertson, b. iv, p. 139.

131. Robertson, b. vii. p. 190, 242.

132. Major Rogers's Account of North America, p. 210.

133. Charlevoix, tom. iii. p. 302.

134. Robertson, b. ii. p. 185. Burke's America, vol. i. b. 300.

135. Charlevoix, N. Fr. tom. iii. p. 260.

136. The general introduction of fire-arms among the Indians has probably greatly contributed to the diminution of the wild animals.

Book I, Chapter V.

1. Raynal, Histoire des Indes, vol. ii. liv. iii. p. 3. 10 vols. 8vo. 1795.

2. Cook's First Voyage, vol. iii. p. 240, 4to.

3. See the different accounts of New Guinea and New Britain, in the Histoire des Navigations aux terres Australes; and of New Caledonia and the New Hebrides in Cook's Second Voyage, vol. ii. b. iii.

4. Cook's First Voyage, vol. ii. p. 345. Second Voyage, vol. i. p. 101. Third Voyage, vol. i. p. 161, &c.

5. Cook's Second Voyage, vol. i. p. 246.

6. Id. Third Voyage, vol. i. p. 124.

7. Cook's Third Voyage, vol. i. p. 137.

8. Id. Second Voyage, vol. i. p. 127.

9. Cook's First Voyage, vol. iii. p. 66.

10. Id. p. 45.

11. Id. Third Voyage, vol. i. p. 157.

12. Id. First Voyage, vol. iii. p. 43.

13. Id. vol. ii, p. 405.

14. Cook's First Voyage, vol. iii. p. 45.

15. Missionary Voyage, Appendix, p. 347.

16. Cook's Second Voyage, vol. i. p. 349.

17. I feel very little doubt that this rate of increase is much slower than would really take place, supposing every check to be removed. If Otaheite, with its present produce, were peopled only with a hundred persons, the two sexes in equal numbers, and each man constant to one woman; I cannot but think that, for five or six successive periods, the increase would be more rapid than in any instance hitherto known, and that they would probably double their numbers in less than fifteen years.

18. Cook's First Voyage, vol. ii. p. 207, et seq. Second Voyage, vol. i. p. 352. Third Voyage, vol. ii. p. 157, et seq. Missionary Voyage, Appendix, p. 347, 4to.

19. Mr. Anderson acted in the capacity of naturalist and surgeon in Cook's last voyage. Captain Cook, and all the officers of the expedition, seem to have had a very high opinion of his talents and accuracy of observation. His accounts, therefore, may be looked upon as of the first authority.

20. Cook's Third Voyage, vol, ii. p. 158, 159.

21. Id. Second Voyage, vol. i. p. 352.

22. Hume's Essays, vol. i. essay xi. p. 431. 8vo. 1764.

23. Cook's Second Voyage, vol. i. p. 187.

24. Id. Third Voyage, vol. ii. p. 157.

25. Bougainville, Voy. autour du Monde, ch. iii. p. 217. Cook's First Voyage, vol. ii. p. 244. Missionary Voyage, p. 224.

26. Cook's Second Voyage, vol. i. p. 182, 183.

27. Vancouver's Voy. vol. i. b. i. c. 6. p. 98. 4to.

28. Cook's Third Voy. vol. ii. p. 148.

29. Id. p. 153, 154.

30. Cook's Second Voy. vol. i, p. 176.

31. Id. Third Voy. vol. ii. p. 154.

32. Id. p. 155.

33. Id. p. 148.

34. Vancouver's Voy. vol. i. b. i. c. 7. p. 137.

35. Missionary Voyage, p. 192 & 385.

36. Id. Appen. p. 347.

37. Id. ch. xiii. p. 212.

38. Missionary Voy. p. 195. Appen. p. 385.

39. Cook's Second Voy. vol, i. p. 182, & seq. and 346.

40. Missionary Voy. p. 225.

41. I hope I may never be misunderstood with regard to some of these preventive causes of over-population, and be supposed to imply the slightest approbation of them, merely because I relate their effects. A cause, which may prevent any particular evil, may be beyond all comparison worse than the evil itself.

42. Cook's Third Voy. vol. i. p. 406.

43. p. 232.

44. p. 233.

45. Cook's Third Voy. vol. ii. p. 247.

46. Vancouver, vol. i. b. ii. c. ii. p. 187, 188.

47. Cook's Third Voy. vol. iii. p. 157.

48. Id.

49. Cook's Third Voy. vol. i. p. 401. Vol. ii. p. 543. Vol. iii. p. 130. Missionary Voy. p. 270.

50. Cook's Third Voyage, vol. i. p. 394.

51. Id. Second Voy. vol. i, p. 289. Voyage de Pérouse, c. iv, p. 323. c. v. p. 336. 4to. 1794.

52. Pérouse, c. iv. p. 326. c. v. p. 336.

53. Id. c. v. p. 336.

54. Cook's Second Voy. vol. i. p. 289.

55. Pérouse, c. v. p. 336.

56. Ibid.

57. Une infinité de jeunes gens.—Hist. des Navigation aux Terres Australes, vol. ii. p. 507.

58. Cook's Third Voyage, vol. ii. p. 158, note of the Editor.

59. Harris's Collection of Voyages, 2 vols. folio edit. 1744, vol. i. p. 794. This relation is given by John Albert de Mandesloe, a German traveller of some reputation for fidelity, though I believe, in this instance, he takes his accounts from the Dutch writers quoted by Montesquieu (Esprit des Loix, liv. 23. ch. 17). The authority is not perhaps sufficient to establish the existence of so strange a custom; though I confess it does not appear to me wholly improbable. In the same account it is mentioned, that there is no difference of condition among these people, and that their wars are so bloodless that the death of a single person generally decides them. In a very healthy climate, where the habits of the people were favourable to population and a community of goods was established, as no individual would have reason to fear particular poverty from a large family, the government would be in a manner compelled to take upon itself the suppression of the population by law; and, as this would be the greatest violation of every natural feeling, there cannot be a more forcible argument against a community of goods.

60. Missionary Voy. Appen. p. 385.

61. Id. p. 270.

62. Vancouver's Voy. vol. ii. b. iii. c. viii. p. 230.

63. Id. c. vii. and viii.

64. Voyage in Search of Pérouse, ch. xiii. p. 420. Eng. transl. 4to.

65. Id. ch. xiii. p. 400.

Book I, Chapter VI.

66. Genesis, ch. xiii.

67. The various branchings, divisions; and contests of the great Tartar nation are curiously described in the Genealogical History of the Tartars by the Khan Abul Ghazi: (translated into English from the French, with additions, in 2 vols. 8vo.) but the misfortune of all history is, that while the particular motives of a few princes and leaders, in their various projects of ambition, are sometimes detailed with accuracy, the general causes which crowd their standards with willing followers are often entirely overlooked.

68. Tacitus de Moribus Germanorum, s. 37.

69. Id. ib.

70. Gibbon's Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, vol. i. c. x. p. 407, et seq. 8vo. Edit. 1783.

71. Id. vol. i. c. x. p. 455, 456.

72. Id. vol. i. c. x. p. 431.

73. Gibbon, vol. ii. c. xi. p. 13.

74. Id. p. 11.

75. Id. p. 19, A. D. 270.

76. Id. p. 26.

77. Id. vol. ii. c. xii. p. 75.

78. Gibbon, vol. ii. c. xii. p. 79, A. D. 277.

79. Id. c. xiii. p. 132, A. D. 296.

80. Id. c. xii. p. 84.

81. Id. c. xiii. p. 130.

82. Id. c. xiv. p. 254, A. D. 322.

83. Gibbon, vol. iii. c. xviii. p. 125, A. D. 332.

84. Id. p. 127.

85. Id. c. xix. p. 215, A. D. 356.

86. Id. p. 228, and vol. iv. c. xxii. p. 17, from A. D. 357 to 359.

87. Id. vol. iv. c. xxii. p. 17, and vol. iii. c. xix. p. 229.

88. Gibbon vol. iv. c. xxv. from A. D. 364 to 375.

89. Id. vol. iv. c. xxvi. p. 382, et seq. A. D. 376.

90. Id. vol. v. c. xxx. p. 213.

91. Id. p. 214. A. D. 406.

92. Id. p. 224.

93. Robertson's Charles V. vol. i. sect. i. p. 7. 8vo. 1782.

94. Id. p. 10, 11, 12.

95. Istorie Fiorentine Machiavelli, l. i. p. 1, 2.

96. Gibbon, vol. i. c. ix. p 360, note. Paul Diaconus, from whom it is supposed that Machiavel has taken this description, writes thus:—Septentrionalis plaga quantò magis ab æstu solis remota est et nivali frigore gelida, tantò salubrior corporibus hominum et propagandis gentibus magis coaptata. Sicut è contrario, omnis meridiana regio, quò solis est fervori vicinior, eò morbis est abundantior, et educandis minus apta mortalibus. **** Multæque quoque ex eâ, eò quod tantas mortalium turmas germinat, quantas alere vix sufficit, sæpe gentes egressæ sunt, quæ non solum partes Asiæ, sed etiam maxime sibi contiguam Enropam afflixere. (De Gestis Longobardorum, l. i. c. i.)

Intra banc ergo constituti populi, dum in tantam multitudinem pullulassent, ut jam simul habitare non valerent, in tres (ut fertur) partes omnem catervam dividentes, quænam ex illis patriam esset relictura, ut novas sedes exquirerent, sorte disquirunt. Igitur ea pars, cui sors dederit genitale solum excedere exteraque arva sectari, constitutis supra se duobus ducibus, Ibore scilicet et Agione, qui et Germani erant et juvenili ætate floridi, ceterisque præstantiores, ad exquirandas quas possint incolere terras, sedesque statuere, valedicentes suis simul et patriæ iter arripiunt. (C. ii.)

97. De Bello Gallico, vi. 22. De Moribus German. s. xxvi.

98. De Bello Gallico, vi. 22.

99. Gibbon, vol. i. c. ix. p. 361.

100. Id. p. 348.

101. Tacitus de Moribus German. sect. v.; Cæsar de Bell. Gall. vi. 22.

102. Cæsar found in Gaul a most formidable colony under Ariovistus, and a general dread prevailing that in a few years all the Germans would pass the Rhine. De Bell. Gall. i. 31.

103. Gibbon, vol. iv. c. xxv. p. 283.

104. Id. ib. note.

105. Les nations adossées aux limites de l'univers y tiendroient ferme. Grandeur et Décad. des Rom. c. xvi. p. 187.

106. Tacitus de Moribus Germ. s. xvi.

107. Id. s. xviii.

108. Id. s. xix.

109. Tacitus de Moribus Germ. s. xx..

110. Cæsar de Bell. Gall, vi. 23.

111. Gibbon, vol. i. c. ix. p. 360.

112. Id. vol. i. c. x. p. 417.

113. Robertson's Charles V. vol. i. s. i. p. 11.

114. Id. p. 7.

115. Mallet, Introd. à l'Histoire de Dannemarc, tom, i. c. x. p. 221, 223, 224. l2mo. 1766.

116. Id. p. 226.

117. Mallet, Introd. à l'Histoire de Dannemarc, tom. i. c. x. p. 221.

118. Perhaps the civilized world could not be considered as perfectly secure from another northern or eastern inundation, till the total change in the art of war, by the introduction of gunpowder, gave to improved skill and knowledge the decided advantage over physical force.

119. Hist. Dan. tom. i. c. ix. p. 206.

120. Id. p. 205, 206.

121. Hist. Dan. tom. i. c. ix. p. 207.

122. Nec arare terram aut expectare annum tarsi facile persuaseris, quam vocare hostes et vulnera mereri; pigrum quinimò et iners videtur sudore acquirere quod possis sanguine parare. Tacitus de Mor. Germ. Nothing, indeed, in the history of mankind, is more evident than the extreme difficulty with which habits are changed; and no argument therefore can be more fallacious than to infer that those people are not pinched with want, who do not make a proper use of their lands.

123. Epidemics return more or less frequently, according to their various soils, situations, air, &c. Hence some return yearly, as in Egypt and Constantinople; others once in four or five years, as about Tripoli and Aleppo; others, scarce once in ten, twelve or thirteen years, as in England; others not in less than twenty years, as in Norway and the Northern Islands. Short, History of Air, Seasons; &c. vol. ii. p. 344.

124. Hist. Dan. c. ix. p. 209.

125. Gibbon, Robertson and Mallet seem all rather to speak of Jornandes's expression vagina nationum as incorrect and exaggerated; but to me it appears exactly applicable, though the other expression, officina gentium, at least their translation of it, storehouse of nations, is not accurate.

Ex hâc igitur Scanziâ insulâ, quasi officinâ gentium, aut certè velut vaginâ nationum egressi, &c. Jornandes de Rebus Geticis, p. 83.

Book I, Chapter VII.

1. Gibbon, vol. iv. c. xxvi. p. 348.

2. Gibbon, vol. vi. c. xxxiv. p. 54.

3. Id. p. 55.

4. Geneal. Hist. of Tartars, vol. ii. sec. i. 8vo. 1730.

5. Voy. de Volney, tom. i. ch. xxii. p: 351. 8vo. 1787.

6. Geneal. Hist. Tart. vol. ii. p. 382.

7. Geneal. Hist. Tart. vol. ii. p. 390.

8. Id. p. 430, 431.

9. Id. p. 426.

10. Geneal. Hist. Tart. vol. ii. p. 459.

11. Id. p. 455.

12. Geneal. Hist. Tart. vol. ii. p. 573, et seq.

13. Id. vol. i. ch. xii.

14. Geneal. Hist. Tart. vol. ii. p. 412.

15. Id. vol. ii. p. 413.

16. Id. p. 413, 414, and ch. xii.

17. "They justify it as lawful to have many wives, because they say they bring us many children, which we can sell for ready-money, or exchange for necessary conveniencies; yet when they have not wherewithal to maintain them, they hold it a piece of charity to murder infants new-born, as also they do such as are sick and past recovery, because they say they free them from a great deal of misery." Sir John Chardin's Travels, Harris's Col. b. iii. c. ii. p. 865.

18. Geneal. Hist. Tart. vol. ii. p. 545.

19. Ils se disputeront la terre inculte, comme parmi nous les citoyens se disputent les héritages. Ainsi ils trouveront de fréquentes occasions de guerre pour la nourriture de leurs bestiaux, &c.**** ils auront autant de choses à régler par le droit des gens qu'ils en auront peu à décider par le droit civil. Montes. Esprit des Loix, l. xviii. c. xii.

20. Voy. de Volney, tom. i. c. xxii. p. 361, 362, 363.

21. Gibbon, vol. ix. c.1. p. 238, 239.

22. Voy. de Volney, tom. i. c. xxiii. p. 353.

23. Voy. de Volney, tom. i. c. xxxiii. p. 350.

24. Id. p. 354.

25. Id. p. 350.

26. Voy. de Volney, tom. i. c. xxiii. p. 359.

27. Id. p. 380.

28. Id. p. 366.

29. Id. p. 378.

30. Niebuhr's Travels, vol. ii. c. v. p. 207.

31. It is rather a curious circumstance, that a truth so important, which has been stated and acknowledged by so many authors, should so rarely have been pursued to its consequences. People are not every day dying of famine. How then is the population regulated to the measure of the means of subsistence?

32. Aussi arrive-t'il chaque jour des accidens, des enlèvemens de bestiaux; et cette guerre de maraude est une de celles qui occupent davantage les Arabes. Voy. de Volney, tom. i, c. xxiii. p. 364.

33. Not having been able to procure the work of Pallas on the history of the Mongol nations, I have here made use of a general abridgment of the works of the Russian travellers, in 4 vols. oct. published at Berne and Lausanne in 1781 and 1784, entitled Découvertes Russes, tom, iii. p. 399.

34. Découv. Russ. tom. iii. p. 389.

35. Id. p. 396, 397, 398.

36. Id. p. 378.

37. Cette multitude dévaste tout ce qui se trouve sur son passage; ils emmènent avec eux tout le bétail qu'ils ne consomment pas, et réduisent â l'esclavage les femmes, les enfans, et les hommes, qu'ils n'ont pas massacrés. Découv. Russ. tom. iii. p. 390.

38. Découv. Russ. tom. iii. p. 221. The tribe is described here under the name of Torgots, which was their appropriate appellation. The Russians called them by the more general name of Kalmucks.

39. Id. p. 327.

40. Découv. Russ. tom. iii. p. 319, 320, 321.

41. Id. p. 221. Tooke's View of the Russian Empire, vol. ii. b. ii. p. 30. Another instance of rapid increase presents itself in a colony of baptized Kalmucks, who received from Russia a fertile district to settle in. From 8695, which was its number in 1754, it had increased in 1771 to 14,000. Tooke's View of the Russ. Emp. vol. ii. b. ii. p. 32, 33.

42. Tooke's View of the Russ. Emp. vol. ii. b. ii. p. 29, 30, 31. Découv. Russ. tom. iii. p. 221.

43. Découv. Russ. tom. iii. p. 275, 276.

44. Id. p. 272, 273, 274.

45. Id. p. 324.

46. Découv. Russ. tom. iii. p. 310.

47. Id. p. 270.

48. Id. p. 311, 312, 313.

49. On mit le feu à toutes les meules de blé et de fourrage.**** Cent cinquante villages également incendiés. Mémoires du Baron de Tott, tom. i. p. 272. He gives a curious description of the devastation of a Tartar army, and of its sufferings in a winter campaign. Cette journée coûta à l'armée plus de 3,000 hommes, et 30,000 chevaux, qui périrent de froid, p. 267.

50. Découvertes Russes, vol. iii. p. 261.

51. Voy. de Volney, vol. i. c. 23. p. 353.

52. Découv. Russ. tom. i. p. 467; ii. p. 10, 11, 12, &c.

53. Id. tom. i. p. 290, &c.; ii. p. 11; iv. p. 304.

54. Geneal. Hist. of the Tartars, vol. ii. p. 407.

55. Travels of Wim. Rubruquis, in 1253. Harris's Collection of Voy. b. i. c. ii. p. 561.

56. Découv. Russ. tom. iii. p. 413.

57. Pallas takes notice of the scarcity of women or superabundance of males among the Kalmucks, notwithstanding the more constant exposure of the male sex to every kind of accident. Découv. Russ. tom. iii. p. 320.

58. Id. p: 239.

59. Id. p. 324.

Book I, Chapter VIII.

60. Park's Interior of Africa, c. xx. p. 261. 4to.

61. Id. c. xxiii. p. 312.

62. Park's Interior of Africa, c. xxii. p. 291 & seq.

63. Id. c. xxi. p. 280.

64. Park's Africa, c. xxi. p. 284.

65. L'usage prémature des femmes est peut-être la cause de la briéveté de leur vie; les enfans sont si débauchés, et si peu contraints par les pères et mères que dès leur plus tendre jeunesse ils se livrent à tout ce que la nature leur suggère; rien n'est si rare que de trouver dans ce peuple quelque fille qui puisse se souvenir du tems auquel elle a cessée d'être vierge. Histoire Naturelle de l'Homme, vol. vi. p. 235. 5th edit. 12mo. 31 vols.

66. Park's Africa, c. xx. p. 265. As the accounts of Park, and those on which Buffon has founded his observations, are probably accounts of different nations, and certainly at different periods, we cannot infer that either is incorrect because they differ from each other; but as far as Park's observations extend, they are certainly entitled to more credit than any of the travellers which preceded him.

67. Park's Africa, c. xx. p. 267.

68. Park's Africa, c. xxii. p. 287.

69. Id. p. 288.

70. Franklin's Miscell. p. 9.

71. Park's Africa, c. xxii. p. 295.

72. Id. p. 288, note.

73. Id. p. 295.

74. Park's Africa, c. xix. p. 248.

75. Id. c. xxv. p. 336.

76. The two great requisites just mentioned for a real increase of population, namely, security of property, and its natural concomitant, industry, cannot be expected to exist among the negro nations, while the traffic in slaves on the coast gives such constant encouragement to the plundering excursions which Park describes. Were this traffic at an end, we might rationally hope that, before the lapse of any long period, future travellers would be able to give us a more favourable picture of the state of society among the African nations, than that drawn by Park.

77. Bruce's Travels to discover the Source of the Nile, vol. ii. p. 556. 4to.

78. Bruce's Travels, vol. ii. p. 223.

79. Bruce's Travels to discover the Source of the Nile; vol. iv. p. 411.

80. Id. vol. i. c. xi. p. 280.

81. Bruce, vol. i. c. xi. p, 281.

82. Bruce, vol. iii. p. 33.

83. Id. vol. i. p. 279.

84. Id. vol. iii. p 178.

85. Id. p. 153.

86. Id. vol. iv. p. 22.

87. Id. vol. iii. c. iii. p. 68. c. vii. p. 178; vol. i. c. xiii, p. 353.

88. Bruce, vol. iii. c. vii. p. 195.

89. Id. c. v. p. 124.

90. Id. c. xix. p. 738.

91. Bruce, vol. iii. c. xix. p. 739.

92. Id. c. iii. p. 88.

93. Id. c. xi. p. 306.

94. Id. p. 292.

95. Id. vol. iv. p. 119.

96. Bruce, vol. iii. c. vii. p. 192.

97. Id. vol. iv. c. v. p. 112.

98. Id. vol. iv. p. 258.

99. Id. c. i. p. 14.

100. Bruce, vol. ii. p. 559.

101. Bruce, vol. iv. p. 349.

102. Id. p. 353.

103. Id. p. 411.

104. Bruce, vol. iv. p. .511.

105. Id. p. 511.

106. Bruce, vol. iii. c. xvii. p. 710.

107. Voyage de Volney, tom. i. c. iii. p. 33. 8vo.

108. Voyage de Volney, tom. i. c. xii. p. 170.

109. Voyage de Volney, tom. i. c. xii. p. 172.

110. Volney, tom. i. c. xii. p. 173. This sketch of the state of the peasantry in Egypt given by Volney seems to be nearly confirmed by all other writers on this subject; and particularly in a valuable paper entitled Considerations générales sur l'Agriculture de l'Egypte, par L. Reynier. (Mémoires sur l' Egypte, tom. iv. p. 1.)

111. Voy. de Volney, tom. i. c. xii. s. ii.

Book I, Chapter IX.

1. Travels in Kamtschatka, vol. i. p. 147. 8vo. Eng. trans. 1790.

2. Id. p. 264.

3. Id. vol. ii. p. 252, 253.

4. Travels in Kamtschatka, vol. i. p. 128.

5. Voy. de Pallas, tom. iv. p. 68. 4to. 5 vols. 1788, Paris.

6. Id. p. 60.

7. Id. p. 72.

8. Id. p. 60.

9. Voy. de Pallas, tom. iv. p. 92.

10. Id. p. 5.

11. Polit. Econ. b. i. c. v. p. 30. 4to.

12. Voy. de Pallas, tom. i. p. 250.

13. Découv. Muss. vol. iv. p. 329. 8vo. 4 vols. Berne.

14. Il y a fort peu de débit dans le pays, parceque la plupart des habitans sont cultivateurs, et élèvent eux-mêmes des bestiaux.—Voy. de Pallas, tom. iv. p. 4.

15. In addition to the causes here mentioned, I have lately been informed that one of the principal reasons why large tracts of rich land lie uncultivated in this part of the world is the swarm of locusts, which at certain seasons covers these districts, and from the ravages of which it is impossible to protect the rising crop.

16. Tooke's View of the Russian Empire, vol. ii. p. 242. The principal effect, perhaps, of these importations of foreigners, was the introduction of free men instead of slaves, and of German industry instead of Russian indolence; but the introduction of that part of capital which consists in machinery would be a very great point, and the cheapness of manufactures would soon give the cultivators a taste for them.

17. Voy. de Pallas, tom. iii. p. 10.

18. Id. tom. iv. p. 3.

19. Voy. de Pallas, tom. iv. p. 6.

20. Id. p. 3.

21. Tooke's View of the Russian Empire, vol. iii. p 239.

22. Voy. de Pallas, tom. v. p. 5.

23. Id. p. 253.

24. Tooke's Russian Empire, vol. iii. p. 313.

25. Voy. de Pallas, tom. iii. p. 16. Though in countries where the procreative power is never fully called into action, unhealthy seasons and epidemics have but little effect on the average population; yet in new colonies, which are differently circumstanced in this respect, they materially impede its progress. This point is not sufficiently understood. If in countries which were either stationary or increasing very slowly, all the immediate checks to population, which had been observed, were to continue in force, no abundance of food could materially increase the number of people. But the precise way in which such an abundance operates is by diminishing the immediate checks which before prevailed. Those, however, which may remain, either from the difficulty of changing habits, or from any unfavourable circumstances in the soil or climate, will still continue to operate in preventing the procreative power from producing its full effect.

26. Voy. de Pallas, tom. iii. p. 17. tom. v. p. 411

27. Id. tom. v. p. 252, et seq.

28. Tooke's Russian Empire, vol. ii. p. 245.

29. Voy. de Pallas, tom. v. p. 253.

30. Voy. de Pallas, tom, v. p. 175.

31. Other causes may concur in restraining the population of Siberia, which have not been noticed by Pallas. In general, it should be observed, with regard to all the immediate checks to population, which I either have had or shall have occasion to mention, that, as it is evidently impossible to ascertain the extent to which each acts, and the proportion of the whole procreative power which it impedes, no accurate inferences respecting the actual state of population can be drawn from them à priori. The prevailing checks in two different nations may appear to be exactly the same as to kind, yet if they are different in degree, the rate of increase in each will, of course, be as different as possible. All that can be done, therefore, is to proceed as in physical inquiries; that is, first to observe the facts, and then account for them from the best lights that can be collected.

Book I, Chapter X.

32. Voy. de Volney, tom. ii. c. xxxvii. p. 373. 8vo. 1787.

33. Voy. de Volney, tom. ii. c. xxxvii. p. 373.

34. Id. p. 374.

35. Voy. de Volney, tom. ii. c. xxxvii. p. 375.

36. Id. p. 376.

37. Id. p. 377.

38. Voy. de Volney, tom. ii. c. xxxvii. p. 379.

39. Eton's Turkish Emp. c. viii. 2d edit. 1799.

40. Eton's Turkish Emp. c. ii. p. 55.

41. Voy. de Volney, tom. ii. c. xxxiii. p. 347.

42. Id. p. 350.

43. Voy. de Volney, tom. ii. c. xxxvi. p. 369.

44. Id. c. xxxviii. p. 38.

45. Id. c. xxxiii. p. 345.

46. Id. c. xxxviii. p. 381.

47. Eton's Turkish Emp. c. vii. p. 275.

48. Voy. de Volney, tom. ii. c. xl. p. 445.

49. Eton's Turkish Emp. c. vii, p. 275.

50. Eton's Turkish Emp. c. vii. p. 264.

51. Id. p. 291.

52. Id. p. 280.

53. Sir John Chardin's Travels, Harris's Collect. b. iii. c. ii. p. 870.

54. Découv. Russ. tom. ii. p. 293.

55. Chardin's Travels, Harris's Collect. b. iii. c. ii. p. 902.

56. Id.

57. Découv. Russ, tom. ii. p. 377.

Book I, Chapter XI.

58. Sir William Jones's Works, vol. iii. c. ix. p. 354. Speaking of the Indian laws, the Abbé Raynal says, "La population est un devoir primitif, un ordre de la nature si sacré, que la loi permet de tromper, de mentir, de se parjurer pour favoriser un mariage." Hist. des Indes, tom. i. l. i. p. 81. 8vo. 10 vols. Paris, 1795.

59. Sir Wm. Jones's Works, vol. iii. c. iii. p. 124.

60. Id. p. 130.

61. Id. p. 141.

62. Id. vol. iii. c. ix. p. 340.

63. Sir William Jones's Works, vol. iii. c. ix. p. 343.

64. Id. vol. iii. c. ii. p. 96.

65. Sir William Jones's Works, vol. iii. c. v. p. 221.

66. Id. c. ix. p. 343.

67. Id. c. v. p. 221.

68. Sir William Jones's Works, vol. iii. c. iii. p. 120.

69. Id. p. 121.

70. Sir William Jones's Works, vol. iii. c. iii. p. 141.

71. Id. c. ix. p. 337.

72. Id. c. v. p. 219.

73. Id. c. viii. p. 325.

74. Sir William Jones's Works, vol, iii. c: ix. p. 346, 347.

75. Id. c. iii. p. 133.

76. Sir William Jones's Works, vol. iii. c. iv. p. 165. c. x. p. 397.

77. Id. c. x. p. 397, 398.

78. Lettres Edif. tom. xiv. p. 178.

79. Id. p. 284.

80. Sir William Jones's Works, vol. iii. c. x. p. 390.

81. Hist. des Indes, tom. i. liv. i. p. 97. 8vo. 10 vols. Paris, 1795.

82. Asiatic Researches, vol. iv. p. 354.

83. Asiatic Researches, vol. v. p. 14.

84. Esprit des Loix, liv. xvi. c. 5.

85. Turner's Embassy to Tibet, part ii. c. x. p. 351.

86. Id. c. i. p. 172.

87. Ib.

88. Turner's Embassy, part ii. c. viii. p. 312.

89. Id. c. x. p. 348, 350.

90. Turner's Embassy, part ii. c. x. p. 349.

91. Turner's Embassy, part ii. c. ix. p. 330.

Book I, Chapter XII.

92. Duhalde's Hist. of China, 2 vols. folio, 1738. vol. i. p. 244.

93. Embassy to China, vol. ii. Appen. p. 615. 4to.

94. Embassy to China, vol. ii. Appen. p. 155. 4to.

95. Duhalde's China, vol. i. p. 278.

96. Esprit des Loix, liv. viii. c. xxi.

97. Duhalde's China, vol. i. p. 314.

98. Id. p. 274.

99. Duhalde's China, vol. i. p. 275.

100. Id. ib.

101. Id. p. 276.

102. Lettres Edif. tom. xix. p. 132.

103. Duhalde's s China, vol. i. p. 272.

104. Embassy to China, Staunton, vol. ii. p. 544.

105. Embassy to China, Staunton, vol. ii. p. 545.

106. Duhalde, chapter on Agriculture, vol. i. p. 272; chapter on Plenty, p. 314.

107. Lettres Edif. et Curieuses, tom. xxiii. p. 448.

108. Duhalde's China, vol. i. p. 303.

109. Embassy to China, vol. ii. p. 157.

110. Embassy to China, vol. ii. p. 157.

111. Id. p. 151.

112. Id. p. 152:

113. Embassy to China, Staunton, vol. ii. p. 156.

114. Duhalde's China, vol. i. p. 277.

115. Lettres Edif. et Curieuses, tom. xvi. p. 394.

116. Lettres Edif. et Curieuses, tom. xvi. p. 394. et seq.

117. Embassy to China, Staunton, vol. ii. p. 546.

118. Duhalde's China, vol. i. p. 244.

119. Duhalde's China, vol. i. p. 278. La misère et le grand nombre d'habitants de l'empire y causent cette multitude prodigieuse d'esclaves: presque tous les valets, et généralement toutes les filles de service d'une maison sont esclaves. Lettres Edif. tom. xix, p. 145.

120. Embassy to China, vol. ii. p. 157.

121. Lettres Edif. tom. xxii. p. 187.

122. Lettres Edif. tom. xix. p. 126.

123. Id. p. 127.

124. Duhalde's China, vol. i. p. 259.

125. Id. 256.

126. Lettres Edif. tom. xix. p. 100.

127. Ibid. p. 110.

128. Lettres Edif. tom. xix. p. 111.

129. Lettres Edif. tom. xix. p. 124.

130. Embassy to China, vol. ii. p. 159.

131. Annals of the Chinese Monarchs. Duhalde's China, vol. i. p. 136.

132. Ibid.

133. Lettres Edif. tom. xix. p. 154.

134. Meares's Voyage, ch. vii. p. 92.

135. Lettres Edif. et Curieuses, tom. xxii. p. 174.

136. Id. p. 186.

137. Id. p. 175.

138. Lettres Edif. tom. xxii. p. 180.

139. Id. p. 187.

140. Id. p. 184.

141. Vol. i. b. iv. c. iii. p. 396. 8vo. Eng. tran.

142. Liv. xxiii. c. xii. It is surprising that Montesquieu, who appears sometimes to understand the subject of population, should at other times make such observations as this.

143. Book ii.

Book I, Chapter XIII.

1. Essay xi. p. 467, 4to. edit.

2. Plato de Legibus, lib. v.

3. Plato de Republicâ, lib. v.

4. Plato de Repub. lib. v.

5. Aristotelis Opera, de Repub. lib. vii. c. xvi.

6. De Repub. lib. ii. c. vi. Gillies's Aristot. vol. ii. b. ii. p. 87. For the convenience of those who may not choose the trouble of consulting the original, I refer at the same time to Gillies's translation; but some passages he has wholly omitted, and of others he has not given the literal sense, his object being a free version.

7. De Repub. lib. ii. c. vii. Gillies's Aristot. vol. ii. b. ii. p. 87.

8. De Repub. lib. ii. c. vii. Gillies's Aristot. vol. ii. b. ii. p. 91.

9. De Repub. lib. ii. c. ix. Gillies's Aristot. vol. ii. b. ii. p. 107.

10. Aristot. de Repub. lib. ii. c. x. Gillies's Aristot. vol. ii. b. ii. p. 113.

11. De Legibus, lib. v.

12. Hume's Essay, c. xi. p. 951.

Book I, Chapter XIV.

13. Dissertation, p. 62, 8vo. 1763, Edinburgh.

14. Lib. vi. c. xii.

15. Dionysius Halicarn. lib. ii. 15.

16. Hume, Essay, xi. p. 488.

17. De Amore Prolis.

18. De Moribus Germanorum, 19. How completely the laws relating to the encouragement of marriage and of children were despised, appears from a speech of Minucius Felix in Octavio, cap. 30. "Vos enim video procreatos filios nunc feris et avibus exponere, nunc adstrangulatos misero mortis genere elidere; sent quæ in ipsis visceribus medicaminibus epotis originem futuri hominus extinguant, et parricidium faciunt antequam pariant."

This crime had grown so much into a custom in Rome, that even Pliny attempts to excuse it; "Quoniam aliquarum fecunditas plena liberis tali veniâ indiget." Lib. xxix. c. iv.

19. Sed facet aurato vix ulla puerpera lecto;
Tantum artes hujus, tantum medicamina possunt,
Quæ steriles facit, atque homines in ventre necandos
Conducit.—Juvenal, Sat. vi. 593.

20. Esprit des Loix, liv. xxiii. c. 21.

21. Ibid.

22. Aulus Genius, lib. i. c. 6.

23. Dissertation, Appendix, p. 247.

24. Essay xi. p. 505.

25. Essay xi. p. 504.

26. Essay xi. p. 433.

27. Dissert. on the Numbers of Mankind, p. 91.

28. Id. p. 88.

29. Dissert. on the Numbers of Mankind, p. 89.

30. Hume, Essay xi. p. 433.

31. Ibid.

32. Appendix to Dissertation, p. 182.

33. Hume, Essay xi. p. 430.

34. The extreme insalubrity of Batavia, and perhaps the plague in some countries, may be considered as physical causes operating in an excessive degree. The extreme and unusual attachment of the Romans to a vicious celibacy, and the promiscuous intercourse in Otaheite, may be considered as moral causes of the same nature. Such instances, and others of the same kind, which might probably be found, make it necessary to qualify the general proposition as in the text.

35. Essay xi. p. 425.

36. Dissertation, p. 80.

37. Id. p. 93.

38. Essay xi.

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