"The Tradition of Spontaneous Order"

Barry, Norman
Display paragraphs in this essay containing:
Editor/Trans.
First Pub. Date
Summer 1982
Publisher/Edition
Literature of Liberty. Vol. v, no. 2, pp. 7-58. Arlington, VA: Institute for Humane Studies
Pub. Date
1982
Comments

1. F. A. Hayek, Law, Legislation and Liberty, vol. I, Rules and Order, (1973), pp. 8-11; vol. III, The Political Order of a Free People, (1979), p. xii. It is in the latter that Hayek uses the word 'constructivistic' rather than the more familiar 'constructivist.'

2. See Hayek's essay, "The Results of Human Action but not of Human Design," in Studies in Philosophy: Politics and Economics (London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1967), pp. 96-105; see also the important article by Edna Ullman-Margalit, "Invisible Hand Explanations," in Synthese 39 (1978): 263-291.

3. Adam Smith, The Wealth of Nations, R. H. Campbell and A. S. Skinner (eds.) p. 456. The reference to the 'invisible hand' occurs also in Smith's Theory of Moral Sentiments, D. D. Raphael and A. Macfie (eds.), p. 58.

4. Hayek, "Principles of a Liberal Social Order," in Studies in Philosophy, Politics and Society, p. 167. The only comprehensive treatment of contemporary social and economic problems from a Hayekian standpoint is Thomas Sowell's Knowledge and Decisions (1980).

5. Adam Smith, The Wealth of Nations, p. 456.

6. See Edna Ullman-Margalit, "Invisible Hand Explanations," pp. 282-286.

7. Joseph Schumpeter, A History of Economic Analysis, p. 98.

8. See especially Marjorie Grice-Hutchinson, The School of Salamanca; Raymond de Roover, "Scholastic Economics," in Quarterly Journal of Economics 69 (1955): 162-190; and "Joseph Schumpeter and Classical Economics," in Kyklos 10 (1957): 115-146. See also Murray N. Rothbard, "New Light on the Prehistory of the Austrian School," in E. Dolan (ed.) The Foundations of Modern Austrian Economics, pp. 52-74.

9. Quoted in Grice-Hutchinson, The School of Salamanca, p. 48.

10. See appendix VII in Grice-Hutchinson, The School of Salamanca, pp. 112-115.

11. Quoted in Grice-Hutchinson, The School of Salamanca, p. 94.

12. Grice-Hutchinson, The School of Salamanca, p. 115. [N.B.: "that where and when it is abundant" must be a typo for "than where and when it is abundant". The Literature of Liberty copy reads "that".—Econlib Ed.]

13. De Roover, "Scholastic Economics," p. 185.

14. Grice-Hutchinson Early Economic Thought in Spain, pp. 147-148.

15. Schumpeter, A History of Economic Analysis, p. 112.

16. For a concise exposition of Hale's jurisprudence see J. G. A. Pocock, The Ancient Constitution and Feudal Law, pp. 170-81.

17. Holdsworth, A History of English Law, vol. V, p. 505.

18. Holdsworth, A History of English Law, vol. V, p. 504.

19. Holdsworth, A History of English Law, vol. V, p. 509.

20. Bernard Mandeville, The Fable of the Bees, edited by Philip Harth (1970).

21. Mandeville, The Fable of the Bees, p. 85.

22. Mandeville, The Fable of the Bees, pp. 138-9.

23. Quoted in Hayek's essay "Bernard Mandeville," in New Studies in Philosophy, Politics, Economics and the History of Ideas (1978), p. 261.

24. See Jacob Viner, "An Introduction to Bernard Mandeville, A Letter to Dion (1732)," in The Long View and the Short (Glencoe: The Free Press, 1958), pp. 332-42.

25. Thomas Horne, The Social and Political Thought of Bernard Mandeville (London: Macmillan, 1978).

26. Mandeville, The Fable of the Bees, p. 371.

27. Maurice Goldsmith, "Public Virtues and Private Vices," Eighteenth Century Studies 9 (1976): 510.

28. Tucker's major work on political economy was the unfinished Elements on Commerce and Theory of Taxation (1754). See R. Schuyler (ed.), Josiah Tucker, A Selection of His Economic and Political Writings. For a recent biographical essay on Tucker, see G. Shelton, Dean Tucker and Eighteenth-Century Economic and Political Thought.

29. Review of Schyler's Josiah Tucker: A Selection from His Economic and Political Writings, in Viner's The Long View and the Short, p. 407.

30. Josiah Tucker, Josiah Tucker: A Selection of His Economic and Political Writings, p. 31. [N.B. R. Schuyler, ed. See preceding two footnotes.—Econlib Ed.]

31. See Bernard Semmel, "The Hume-Tucker Debate and Pitt's Trade Proposals," Economic Journal 75 (1965), pp. 759-70.

32. Hume, A Treatise of Human Nature, Book III, p. 578.

33. Hume, A Treatise of Human Nature, pp. 528-9.

34. See Duncan Forbes (ed.), Adam Ferguson: An Essay on Civil Society, p.16. A detailed account of Ferguson's social philosophy can be found in David Kettler, The Social and Political Thought of Adam Ferguson (Ohio: Ohio State University Press, 1965).

35. Ferguson, An Essay on Civil Society, p. 122.

36. This point of view is forcefully argued in Donald Winch, Adam Smith's Politics (1978). More orthodox recent treatments of Smith include T. Campbell, Adam Smith's Science of Morals (1971); Andrew S. Skinner, A System of Social Science (1979); Knud Haarkonssen, The Science of a Legislator (1981); and E. G. West, Adam Smith (1969).

37. Smith, The Wealth of Nations, p. 25.

38. Smith, The Theory of Moral Sentiments, pp. 233-34.

39. Smith, The Wealth of Nations, p. 453.

40. Smith, Lectures on Jurisprudence, p. 32.

41. Smith, The Wealth of Nations, p. 788.

42. Frederic Bastiat, The Law, p. 6.

43. Carl Menger, Problems of Economics and Sociology, p. 146.

44. Menger, Problems of Economics and Sociology, p. 154.

45. Menger, Problems of Economics and Sociology, p. 233.

46. See following Bibliography for a comprehensive list of Hayek's major works.

47. Hayek "Individualism: True and False," in Individualism and Economic Order, p. 23.

48. See especially Hayek's The Constitution of Liberty (1960), chapter 2.

49. Hayek, The Constitution of Liberty, p. 29.

50. Hayek, Law, Legislation and Liberty, vol. II, The Mirage of Social Justice, pp. 109-110.

51. See Ludwig Lachmann, "From Mises to Schackle," Journal of Economic Literature 14 (1976): 54-62. For a sophisticated critique of the extreme 'subjectivitsts,' see G. P. O'Driscoll, Jr. "Spontaneous Order and the Co-ordination of Economic Activities," in Louis M. Spadaro (ed.), New Directions in Austrian Economics, pp. 111-142.

52. Hayek's views are contained in the following essays, "The Use of Knowledge in Society," and "The Meaning of Competition," at pp. 77-91 and 91-106, respectively, in Individualism and Economic Order. Also, Hayek's theory of the competitive process emerged from his critique of those socialists who tried to use the neoclassical equilibrium as a model for a socialist economy without private property and a decentralized market. See Hayek's three essays on "Socialist Calculation," in Individualism and Economic Order, pp. 119-208. Israel Kirzner has produced a sophisticated version of Hayek's pioneering ideas in Competition and Entrepreneurship. See also S. C. Littlechild, The Fallacy of the Mixed Economy.

53. See Hayek's "Competition as a Discovery Procedure," in New Studies in Philosophy, Politics, Economics and the History of Ideas, pp. 179-90.

54. Hayek, "The Use of Knowledge in Society," in Individualism and Economic Order, p. 86.

55. Hayek, "The Use of Knowledge in Society," in Individualism and Economic Order, p. 87.

56. For Hayek's recent thoughts on these topics, see Law, Legislation and Liberty, vol. III, The Political Order of a Free People, chapter 14.

57. Hayek, Constitution of Liberty, p. 365.

58. For expositions of the Austrian theory of the trade cycle see the following: F. A. Hayek, Prices and Production (2nd edition); Hayek, Monetary Theory and the Trade Cycle; G. Haberler, Prosperity and Depression; and G. O'Driscoll, Economics as a Co-ordination Problem.

59. See Hayek's Prices and Production (2nd edition), pp. 34-42.

60. See "The Campaign Against Keynesian Inflation," in Hayek's New Studies in Philosophy, Politics, Economics and the History of Ideas, p. 212.

61. Hayek, The Pure Theory of Capital, p. 408.

62. First suggested in 1976; see Hayek's The Denationalisation of Money (2nd edition).

63. Hayek, The Denationalisation of Money (2nd edition), p. 19.

64. Hayek, "Principles of a Liberal Social Order," in Studies in Philosophy, Politics and Economics, p. 162.

65. See, Hayek, The Constitution of Liberty, chapter 13.

66. Hayek, Law, Legislation and Liberty, vol. II, Rules and Order, p. 116. [N.B. Vol. II is The Mirage of Social Justice.—Econlib. Ed.]

67. Hayek, Law, Legislation and Liberty, vol. I, Rules and Order, p. 36.

68. See Hayek, Rules and Order, chapter 5.

69. Bruno Leoni, Freedom and the Law (1961).

70. Hayek, Rules and Order, pp. 18-23.

71. Hayek, Constitution of Liberty, pp. 58-61.

72. See, "Rules, Perception and Intelligibility," Studies in Philosophy, Politics and Economics, p. 47.

73. See Hayek's Epilogue, "Three Sources of Human Values," Law, Legislation and Liberty, vol. III, The Political Order of a Free People, pp. 154-155.

74. Hayek, Rules and Order, p. 41.

75. Hayek, Rules and Order, p. 73.

76. Hayek, "Three Sources of Human Values," p. 166, (see note 73 above).

77. Hayek, "Three Sources of Human Values," p. 167.

78. Hayek, "Three Sources of Human Values," p. 158.

79. Hayek, Rules and Order, p. 88.

80. Hayek, "Three Sources of Human Values," p. 167.

81. Hayek, Rules and Order, pp. 48-54.

82. Hayek, The Constitution of Liberty, pp. 207-210.

83. Hayek, The Political Order of a Free People, p. 13.

84. Hayek, Rules and Order, p. 144.

85. See especially "The Campaign Against Keynesian Inflation," pp. 191-217.

86. See, Hayek, Law, Legislation and Liberty, vol. II, The Mirage of Social Justice, chapter 10.

87. Hayek, The Constitution of Liberty, pp. 93-9.

88. See, The Political Order of a Free People, chapter 17.

89. For a contractarian critique of Hayek's doctrine of evolution, see James Buchanan, "Law and the Invisible Hand," in Freedom in Constitutional Contract, pp. 25-39.

End of Notes.

Return to top